Cardiac and Cardiovascular Models

Coupling, Integration and Improvement

Description:
Creating mathematical models of the heart and the cardiovascular system not only is a challenging theoretical task, but - due to the frequency of diseases of the circulatory system occuring in the western countries - there also is a demand for a better medical understanding of the systems involved. Mathematical models can contribute to this task.
Advanced models of various parts of the cardiovascular system and the heart nowadays already exist, utilizing different mathematical tools and methods. Major activities are illustrated by the following examples:
• Myocytes: Models for the electrophysiological behavior of the single myocard cell using e.g. curcuit equations;
• Electrical excitation of the myocard: Simulation of the propagation of excition, of ventricular arrhythmias and of reentry phenomena;
• Electromechanics: Coupling electrophysiology of myocytes and mechanical properties of the mycard to describe force development over the time;
• Heart rate variability (HRV): Description of the dynamics of heart rate as a stochastic process, identification and recognition of periculous patterns in HRV utilizing data mining techniques and time series analysis;
• Local hemodynamics: Modelling of the local blood flow for example at branches of blood vessels or inside the heart (fluid dynamics);
• Global hemodynamics: Understanding the blood flow throughout the whole body comprising regions of different nature like for example the peripheral part of the cardiovascular system, the heart, the large arterias and veins (compartment models);
• Cardiac control systems: Describing the cardiac control via the autonomous nervous system as well as via the various existing hormonal mechanisms (Control Theory);
• Autorespiratory system: Including a model of the respiratory system (describing the dynamics of the CO2 and O2 concentration) into models of the cardiovascular system in order to support the understanding of basic control mechanisms.

Clearly these activities are deeply interconnected reflecting the fact, that a thorough understanding of the heart and the linked systems requires the integration of knowledge in at least two different ways: Coupling models for "disjoint" subsystems - like for example the autorespiratory system and the circulatory system, and integrating models acting on different scales.

Applications of the outcome of these modelling activities already exist:

• better understanding of heart diseases like the myocard infarct or arrhythmias with a resulting improvement of treatment;
• improvement of implants like stents or artifical heart valves with respect to their mechanical / fluid dynamical behavior;
• risk stratification for the appearance of severe arrhythmias;
• evaluation of drug influence both in the area of pharmaceutical research and in therapy control.

Since the work of each of the partners so far is more or less focused on one or two of the research activities described above, the coupling and integration of these activities will be the main goal of the planned working group. This process should lead to a deeper understanding of cardiovascular phenomena on the whole and possesses the potential to significantly improve related medical applications in near future

Past Event:
Workshop Issues in Cardiovascular Respiratory and Metabolic Control Modelling, June 12-13, 2003, Graz Austria

Scheduled Events:
Two types of events are planned to take place periodically within the context of the working group: Meetings posessing a more theoretical/mathematical character and such with the main goal being the promotion of communication between experts from the medical science and mathematicians. All current partners of the proposed working group are in contact or already collaborate with physicians or other scientists from the medical or medical-technology area.

 Participants Dr. L. Formaggia, Modelling and Scientific Computing, MOX, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Prof. Dr. F. Kappel, Institute for Mathematics, University of Graz, Austria Dr. H. Knaf, Dr. P. Lang, Fraunhofer institute Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik, Germany Dr. R. Reinhard, Firma SynCare / Ganimed, Germany Dr. F. Sachse, Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Prof. Dr. F. van de Vosse, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Prof. C. Hirsch, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Belgium Prof. L. Pavarino, University of Milano, Italy Prof. A. Veneziani, MOX, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Dr. Glenn Terje Lines, Simula Research, Lysaker, Norway Prof. Aslak Tveito, Simula Research, Lysaker, Norway Dr. R. Clayton, University of Sheffield, UK Dr. Joakim Sundnes, Simula Research, Lysaker, Norway Dr. P. Zunino, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland Dr. Thiriet, INRIA Paris, France Dr. M.F. Mlynski, CWA GmbH, Aachen, Germany Dr. R. Raducanu, Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi, Romania Dr. F. Wilquem, Numeca International, Brussels, Belgium Dr. K. Markus, University of Aachen, Alsdorf, Germany Dr. G. Pontrelli, CNR, Roma, Italy Prof. S. Tsangaris, National Technical University Athens, Greece Prof. J. Nieto, Institute of Mathematics, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Dr. A. Torres, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain Contact the moderator Dr. H. Knaf: knaf@itwm.fhg.de Register as a participant Register as participant using this form

Eindhoven, January 22, 2004- macsi.win@tue.nl