**Last update:** January 29^{th},
2014.

**News:**

·
January 29^{th}, 2014: Examination of
January 27^{th}, 2014 of 2XN26 made available.

·
November 14^{th}, 2013: Examination
November 4^{th}, 2013 of 2XN26 made available.

·
October 28^{th}, 2013: all “drafts” and
“preliminary” statuses of documents and reading lists changed to “final” (the
contents did not change).

·
September 20^{th}, 2013: the
assignments are made available; see below.

·
September 6^{th}, 2013: Link to
Practical training added.

The examinations (including draft answers) of (previous years of) 2IN20
(!):

- 2003/2004:
June
23
^{rd}2004 and August 13^{th}2004 (reprise); - 2004/2005:
June
23
^{rd}2005 and August 23^{rd}2005 (reprise);

- 2005/2006:
June
28
^{th}2006 and August 30^{th}2006 (reprise); - 2006/2007:
June
27
^{th}2007 and August 22^{nd}2007 (reprise); - 2007/2008:
June 13
^{th}2008 and August 8^{th}2008 (reprise).

Examinations (including draft answers) of 2IN25 (!):

- 2007/2008:
June
13
^{th}2008 and August 8^{th}2008 (reprise). - 2008/2009:
January
6
^{th}2009 and March 12^{th}2009 (reprise). - 2009/2010:
January
22
^{nd}2009 and April 16^{th}2010 (reprise).

Examinations (including draft answers) of 2IN26:

·
2010/2011: November
3^{rd}, 2010 (2XN26), January 20^{th},
2011 (reprise 2XN26), January
20^{th}, 2011 (2YN26), April
11^{th}, 2011 (reprise 2YN26).

·
2011/2012: November
1^{st}, 2011 (2XN26), January
23^{rd}, 2012 (reprise 2XN26), January
23^{rd}, 2012 (2YN26), April
16^{th}, 2012 (reprise 2YN26).

·
2012/2013: October
29^{th}, 2012, January
23^{rd}, 2013.

·
2013/2014: November
4^{th}, 2013 (2XN26),
January 27^{th}, 2014 (reprise 2XN26).

Notes:

·
2IN20 is a 4 ECTS credits BaMa
predecessor of 2IN26.

·
2IN25 is a 5 ECTS credits BaMa
predecessor of 2IN26.

The course addresses basic concepts of real-time
systems, presents examples of real-time systems, covers real-time systems
analysis and design, and gives an in-depth treatment of timing analysis and
scheduling. The course is organized around the issue of real-time requirements
and their impact on the architecture of a system. The considered system domain
will be networked embedded systems. Applications are drawn from automotive
domain (e.g. real-time control) and multi-media applications, such as video
streaming.

The course is
completed by passing an examination and doing *either *an assignment *or *a
practical training. The assignment involves studying one or more articles and
writing a report. The assignment can be done with groups of 4 or 5 students.
These groups must hand in their own, original work, reported by themselves. The
practical training involves performing weekly experiments with a set of simple
real-time kernels using a simple application.

This year, there
are 8 weeks of regular lectures. There will be two regular lectures per week
and a tutorial session. The tutorial session consists of two hours. The first
hour will be used to *discuss*
exercises. S*tudents are expected to make
those assignments prior to the lecture.* Answers to the exercises will be
made available via OASE. The second hour will be used to *discuss* the practical training.

On this site the
current status of the course will be maintained in terms of the contents, and
expected reading. Slides and other material will mostly be available from OASE
only.

**Course objectives (high-level):**

The objective of this course is to
bring students into the position to analyze and (partially) design real-time
systems, and conduct research in the area of real-time systems.

**Course objectives (lower-level):**

The student can:

(i)
explain
and apply the fundamental concepts and terminology of real-time systems;

**(ii)
**explain
and address the fundamental problems of real-time systems;

**(iii)
**analyze
real-time systems designs;

**(iv)
**design
a real-time system (at least partially); and

**(v)
**identify and assess the relevant literature and research
trends of real-time systems.

**Course program (see last
year’s 2IN26 course for a preliminary course program)**

*Quartile 1* (September 2^{nd}, 2013 – November 11^{th}, 2013):

Week 1 (02-09):
slides: RTS.A1-Overview, RTS.A1-Introduction;

book: chapter 1.

(03-09): slides:
RTS.B3-Specification-concepts, RTS.D0-Water-Vessel, RTS.B3-Reference Model;

book: chapter 2.

(04-09): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 2 (09-09): **No classes**

(10-09): slides:
RTS.B3-Reference Model (cnt’d), RTS.B4-Policies-1;

book: chapter 2;

expected reading: [4].

(11-09): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 3 (16-09): slides: RTS.B3-Cyclic Executives, RTS.B5-Analysis-1;

book: section 3.3,
chapter 4, sections 4.1 till 4.4;

expected reading: “A Note on Cyclic
Executives”.

(17-09): slides:
RTS.B5-Analysis-2-FPPS;

book: section 4.5
(excluding 4.5.3);

expected reading:
[2].

(18-09): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 4 (23-09): slides: RTS.B5-Analysis-2-FPPS (cnt’d),
RTS.C7-Periodic Tasks, RTS.B4-Policies-2-FP-servers;

book: chapter 5
(except for sections 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.4.1, 5.4.3, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7),
section 10.5.4;

expected reading:
[5].

(24-09): slides:
RTS.B5-Policies-3-RAP;

book: chapter 7
(except for implementation considerations of all protocols and multi-unit
aspects of SRP);

expected reading:
[1, 3].

(25-08): discussion (exercises & practical training).

Week 5 (30-09):
slides: RTS.B5-Analysis-5-FPPS-extensions,
RTS.B5-Analysis-6-FPPS-arbitrary deadlines;

book: section 4.5
(excluding 4.5.3);

(01-10): slides: RTA.C6-Resource
reservation;

(02-10): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 6 (07-10):
slides: RTS.B5-Analysis-7-FPDS;

(08-10): slides: RTS.B5-Analysis-8-FPDS-pessimistic,
RTS.B5-Analysis-9-practical factors;

(09-10): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 7 (14-10):
slides: RTS-RT Communication;

expected reading:
[6].

(15-10): **No classes**

(16-10): discussion (practical
training **only**).

Week 8 (21-10):
Guest lecture by Prof.Dr.-Ing.habil. C. Hentschel from the Brandenburg University of
Technology of Cottbus-Senftenberg, Germany;

expected reading:
[7].

(22-10): Guest lecture by Prof.Dr.-Ing.habil. C. Hentschel from the Brandenburg University of
Technology of Cottbus-Senftenberg, Germany.

(23-10): discussion (exercises
& practical training).

Week 9 (28-10): **No classes (examination week)!**

(29-10): **No classes (examination week)!**

(30-10): **No classes (examination week)!**

Week 10 (04-11): **No classes (examination week)!**

(05-11): **No classes (examination week)!**

(06-11): **No classes (examination week)!**

**RTA Reading guides:**

·
2012/2013 (Last year!): 2IN26-2012/2013.

·
2013/2014 (final): 2IN26-2013/2014.

**Examination: **There will be an exam at the
end of the 1^{st} quartile and a reprise after the 2^{nd}
quartile. You are *not* allowed to take
any information with you to the examination! Next to the exam, there will be an
assignment.

**Visualization
tools**

·
Realtime

**Assignments:**

There are 2 assignments, and each group is free to select an assignment.

- Assignment 1: Analysis
for H-FPPS - independent applications;
- Assignment 2: Analysis
for H-FPPS - dependent applications;

Guidelines for the report can be found here.

Not making this is failing. There will be no acceptance after the
examination date of the reprise. You are expected to work in teams.

**Practical training:
**information can be found here.

**Lecturers:**

R.J.Bril (main lecturer)

MF 6.072, tel.: 5412

Guest
lecturers:

- Prof. Dr.-Ing.habil C. Hentschel, TU Cottbus (D).

**Book:**** **G.C. Buttazzo,
“Hard real-time computing systems, predictable scheduling – algorithms and
applications”, Springer, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4614-0676-1 (3^{nd} edition).

**Related slides: **http://feanor.sssup.it/~giorgio/slides/realtime/;

**Expected reading
(final):**

[1]
Risk Forum: *What really happened on Mars Rover Pathfinder*, December 1997.

[2]
R.J. Bril, E.F.M. Steffens, and W.F.J.
Verhaegh, *Best-case response times and jitter analysis of real-time tasks*,
Journal of Scheduling, 7(2): 133-147, 2004.

[3] D. Polock and D. Zoebel,
*Conformance testing of priority inheritance protocols*, In: Proc. 7^{th}
IEEE International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications
(RTCSA), pp. 404-408, December 2000.

[4] J.A. Stankovic,
*Real-Time Computing*, Byte, pp. 155 –
160, August 1992.

[5] M. Stanovich,
T.P. Baker, A.I. Wang, and M. González Harbour, *Defects of the POSIX Sporadic Server and How to
Correct Them*, In: Proc. 16^{th} IEEE RTAS, pp. 35 – 45, April 2010.

[6]
R.I. Davis, A. Burns, R.J. Bril, and J.J. Lukkien, *Controller
Area Network (CAN) schedulability analysis: Refuted, revisited and revised,
*Real-Time Systems, ISSN 1573-1383 (online),
http://www.springerlink.com/content/8n32720737877071/, January 30^{th},
2007, ISSN 0922-6443 (print), 35(3):
239-272, April 2007.

[7] C. Hentschel, R.J. Bril, Y. Chen, R. Braspenning, and T.-H. Lan, *Video
Quality-of-Service for consumer terminals - a novel system for programmable
components*, In: IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 49(4):
1367-1377, November 2003.

**Further reading
(final):**

[8] L. Almeida and P. Peidreiras, *Scheduling
with temporal partitions: response-time analysis and server design*, In: Proc. 4^{th} ACM International Conference on
Embedded Software (EMSOFT), pp. 95 - 103, September 2004.

[9] M. Behnam, Insik Shin,
T. Nolte, and M. Nolin, *SIRAP: A
synchronization protocol for hierarchical resource sharing in real-time open
systems*, In: Proc. 7^{th} ACM & IEEE International Conference
on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), pp. 279 – 288, September 2004.

[10]
M. Bertogna, N.
Fisher, and S. Baruah. *Static-priority scheduling and resource hold times*, In: Proc. 15^{th}
International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real-Time Systems, pp. 1-8,
March 2007.

[11]
R.J. Bril, J.J. Lukkien, and W.F.J. Verhaegh, *Worst-case
response time analysis of real-time tasks under fixed-priority scheduling with
deferred preemption*, Real-Time Systems Journal, ISSN 1573-1383 (online), DOI
10.1007/s11241-009-9071-z, http://www.springerlink.com/content/f05r404j63424h27, April 28^{th},
2009, ISSN 0922-6443 (print), 42(1-3): 63 – 119, August 2009.

[12]
G.C. Buttazzo, *Rate Monotonic vs. EDF:
Judgment Day*, Real-Time Systems, 29(1): 5 – 26, 2005.

[13]
R.I. Davis and A. Burns, *Hierarchical Fixed Priority Pre-Emptive Scheduling*, In: Proc. 26^{th}
IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 389-398, December 2005.

[14]
R.I. Davis and A. Burns, *Resource sharing
in Hierarchical Fixed Priority Pre-Emptive Systems*, In: Proc. 27th IEEE
Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 257-267, December 2006.

[15]
M. *Fixed Priority Scheduling of Periodic
Tasks with Varying Execution Priority*, In: Proc. 12^{th} IEEE
Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 116 – 128, 1991.

[16]
J. Goossens and R. Devillers,
*The non-optimality of the monotonic priority assignments for hard real-time
offset free systems*, Real-Time Systems, 13(2): 107-126, September 1997.

[17]
A.M. Groba, A.
Alonso, J.A. Rodriques, M. Garcia Valls,
*Response time of streaming chains: analysis and results*, In: Proc. 14^{th}
IEEE Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.
182 – 189, 2002.

[19]
M.H. Klein, T. Ralya,
B. Pollak, R. Obenza, and
M. González Harbour, *A
Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic
Analysis for Real-Time Systems*, Kluwer Academic Publishers (KAP), 1993.

[20]
J.W.S. Liu, *Real-Time Systems*, Prentice Hall, 2000.

[21]
C.W. Mercer and S. Savage and H. Tokuda, *Processor Capability Reserves: Operating System
Support for Multimedia Applications*, In: Proc. International Conference on
Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), pp. 90-99, May 1994.

[22]
R. Obenza, *Guaranteeing real-time
performance using RMA*, Embedded Systems Programming, pp. 26-40, 1994.

[23]
R. Rajkumar and K. Juvva and A. Molano and S. Oikawa, *Resource Kernels: A
Resource-Centric Approach to Real-Time and Multimedia Systems*, In: Proc. SPIE
Vol. 3310, Conference on Multimedia Computing and Networking, pp. 150-164,
January 1998.

[24]
I. Shin and I. Lee, *Periodic resource model for compositional real-time guarantees*, In:
Proc. 24^{th} IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 2-13,
December 2003.

[25]
L. Steffens, G. Fohler, G. Lipari, and G.
Buttazzo, *Resource Reservation in Real-Time Operating Systems – a joint
industrial and academic position*, In: Proc. International Workshop on
Advanced Real-Time Operating System Services (ARTOSS), pp. 25 – 30, July 2003.

[26]
D. Zoebel and P. Polock
and A. van Arkel, *Testing for the Conformance of
Real-time Protocols Implemented by Operating Systems*, Electronic Notes in
Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 133, pp. 315- 332, May 2005. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661