The Albanian inherited lexicon

This file was derived from Albanische Etymologien (Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz), Bardhyl Demiraj, Leiden Studies in Indo-European 7; Amsterdam - Atlanta 1997. That publication is referenced (by page) via "AE nnn". The database was compiled by Bardhyl Demiraj in 1998-1999, and converted to the Starling format by Sergei Starostin and Alexander Lubotsky in 1999-2000. The database is being currently revised by Alexander Lubotsky and Michiel de Vaan. Their comments are marked with [AL/MdV].

The forms separated by a slash (/) belong to the Tosk and Gheg dialects respectively. Otherwise, the dialectal provenance is explicitly stated. (tg) - both Tosk and Gheg, (t) - Tosk, (g) Gheg.

In the verbal labels, "r" means `reflexive'.

"PAlb." refers to a period from Late-IE until the beginning of the Latin influence (100 BC).

The symbols _x_ have the following meaning: _+_ = the word is of IE date or derived from an IE root; _−_ = the word belongs to the substratum layer (although it is also attested in other languages); _?_ = the etymology is uncertain.

a [1] [particle] (tg) {1} ‘or’
PAlb. *(h)au (AE 69)
PIE *h2eu-, root *h2u ‘that’ _+_ (Pok. 73)
Gr. αὖ ‘on the other hand, again’
Notes: {1} Proclitic disjunctive particle, used with one or more parts of the sentence.

a [2] [particle] (tg) ‘probably, perhaps’
PAlb. *(h)an (AE 69)
PIE *h2en, root *h2n ‘there’ _+_ (Pok. 37)
Lat. an ‘yes, perhaps’
Notes: {1} Interrogative particle, usually used proclitically in simple sentences.

a ̊ [3] [particle] (tg) {1} ‘there’
PAlb. *(h)au ̊ (AE 70)
PIE *h2eu-, root *h2u ‘that’ _+_ (Pok. 73)
Gr. αὖ ‘on the other hand, again’
Notes: {1} Deictic particle, pointing afar, only used in the pronominal system in compounds.

ag [m] (tg) ‘dawn, early morning; black mark round the eyes’
PAlb. *(h)aug-
Alb. agull [m] (g) ‘alba, aurora’ {1} (AE 72)
PIE *h2eug-, root *h2ug ‘day-light’ _?_ (Pok. 87)
Gr. αὐγή ‘day-light, splendor’
Notes: {1} agull is an Alb. formation with the suffix -ull.

ahë / avë [f] ‘breath; vapour; soul, spirit’
PAlb. *(h)aua̅ {1}
Alb. afsh [m] (tg) ‘breath; vapour, sultriness’ {2}, cf. aft (AE 72)
PIE *h2euh1-o- {3}, root *h2uh1 ‘breath, wind’ _?_ (Pok. 81f)
Gr. (Hes.) ἄος . τό πνευ̃μα
Notes: {1} Alb. feminine -stem. {2} afsh is an Alb. formation with the suffix -sh. {3} The Schwebe-ablaut makes the connection uncertain.

aft, aht [m] (tg) ‘breath, vapour, fiery breath of the fire’
PAlb. *(h)auet-, cf. ahë (AE 71)
PIE *h2euh1-et-, root *h2uh1 ‘breath’ _?_ (Pok. 81f)
Gr. ἀϋτμή ‘breath, fiery breath, fragrance’; (Hes.) ἀετμόν . τό πνευ̃μα

ah {1} ‘oh, ow(ch) (interjection of pain, annoyance, surprise)’
PAlb. *(h)ai/(h)au (AE 73)
PIE *h2ei-/h2eu-, root *h2i/h2u ‘oh!’ _?_ (Pok. 10, 71)
Gr. αἴ ‘oh!’
Lat. au ‘oh!’
Notes: {1} Final -h may be due to emphasis.

ah [m] (tg); hah [m] (g) {1} ‘beech-tree’
PAlb. *(h)ah- (AE 73)
PIE *Hosk- {2} ‘ash-tree’ _+_ (Pok. 783)
Arm. hac‘i ‘ash’
OHG asc ‘ash’
Notes: {1} Only in Bash. {2} Possibly, *h3esk-.

ai [pron. dem.] (tg) {2} ‘he (there), Lat. ille
PAlb. * ̊i- {1} < QIE *h1is
Alb. ky [pron] (tg) ‘he (here), Lat. iste’ {3} (AE 73)
PIE *h1i, root *h1i ‘he’ _+_ (Pok. 281)
Lat. is ‘he’
Go. is ‘he’
Notes: {1} Reshaped after the fem. or n. stem *h1ih2, h1id. {2} Demonstrative and personal pronoun. {3} The vowel change of */i/ to /y/ has originated in composition due to assimilation to the preceding sound.

(a)ta [pron Nomsn] {1} (tg) ‘it (there), that, Lat. illud
PAlb. * ̊ta(d)
Alb. këta [pron Nomsn] (tg) ‘it (here), Lat. istud, this’ {2}, cf. k(ë) ̊ (AE 73)
PIE *tod, root *t- ‘it’ _+_ (Pok. 281)
Skt. tád ‘it’
Notes: {1} Demonstrative and relative pronoun. {2} Other old case forms are: m.f. atë, të < *tom, m. ta, ata < *to-, n.f. < *teh2, teh2ns.

akull [m] (tg) ‘ice, frost’
PAlb. *auK-(ul-) (AE 74)
PIE *Houk- ‘cold, frost’ _?_ (Pok. 783)
Arm. oyc ‘cold’

ãmë [f] (g); amull [m] (g) ‘river-bed, fountain’
PAlb. *habna̅ {1} < QIE *h2eb-n-
Alb. hãmull [m] (g) ‘(fish-)pond, still water’; amull [m] (t) ‘(fish-)pond, still water’ (AE 75)
PIE *h2ep-, root *h2p ‘water, river’ _+_ (Pok. 51)
Lat. amnis ‘river’

ãmë [f] (g) ‘odour, (un)pleasant smell, fragrance’
PAlb. *adma̅
Alb. ãmëz, ãmzë [f] (g) ‘odour, (un)pleasant smell, fragrance’ {1} (AE 76)
PIE *Hod-meh2 ‘odour, smell’ _+_ (Pok. 772)
Gr. ὀδμή ‘smell, scent’
Notes: {1} ãmëz, ãmzë are diminutive formations with the suffix -(ë)z(ë).

an [m] (t); ãnë [f] (t); enë [f] (g) ‘vessel, cooker’
PAlb. *(h)aukn-
Alb. anë / ãnë [f] ‘vessel, cooker’; enë [nomplf] (tg) ‘kitchen-utensils’ {1} (AE 76)
PIE *h2euk(w)-sno- ‘pot’ _?_ (Pok. 88)
Go. auhns ‘oven’; Skt. ukhá- ‘pot’
Notes: {1} en- is the Alb. plural stem with umlaut of the root vowel < PAlb ani̅̆.

anë / ãnë [f] ‘edge, border, side; party’
PAlb. *(h)ant- {1} (AE 77)
PIE *h2(e)nt-, root *h2nt ‘front, face’ _+_ (Pok. 48)
Go. und ‘up to’; Skt. antá- ‘edge, border, end’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, the reconstruction *h2n̥t-neh2 > PAlb. antna̅ is also possible.

ãng [m] (g) ‘nightmare, incubus; anguish; constriction’
PAlb. *ang-
Alb. ãnkth [m] (g) ‘nightmare, incubus; anguish; constriction’ {1}; makth [m] (tg) ‘nightmare, incubus; anguish; constriction’ {2} (AE 79)
PIE *h2(o)nǵh-o-, root *h2nǵh ‘narrow’ _+_ (Pok. 42)
Lat. ango̅ ‘to cramp (up), constrict’
Notes: {1} An Alb. formation with the diminutive suffix -th. {2} An Alb. formation with the intensifying prefix m(ë)-.

aq [particle] (tg) {1} ‘so much’
PAlb. * ̊kai {2}, cf. a ̊ [3] (AE 80)
PIE *kwoi, root *kw ‘someone; who’ _+_ (Pok. 644)
OLat. quoi ‘which’ {3}
Notes: {1} Comparative particle. From a-q (< Alb. a(u) ki), resulting from the merger of a former syntactic unit. {2} Possibly a plural form of the pronominal stem kwo- which forms indefinite, interrogative and relative pronouns. A reconstruction *kweh2i is also possible. {3} Or Lat. quae.

që [pron] (tg) ‘that’
PAlb. *kai {1} (AE 80)
PIE *kwo-, root *kw ‘that’ _+_ (Pok. 644)
Lat. quoi ‘they’
Notes: {1} A frozen case form, possibly *kwoi. {2} In view of its function in Alb., it seems at least equally likely that që is a loanword from Latin que [MdV].

arë [f] (tg) ‘arable land, soil’
PAlb. *arua̅ (AE 80)
PIE *h2rh3uer-, root *h2rh3 ‘arable land, soil’ _+_ (Pok. 63)
Gr. ἄρουρα arable land
Lat. arvum ‘corn-field’

arg [m] (t) ‘young louse, newly hatched nit’
PAlb. *arg-
Alb. argull [m] (t) ‘young louse, newly hatched nit’ {1}; ergjiz [m] (tg) ‘young louse, newly hatched nit’ {2} (AE 81)
PIE *Horgwh-, root *Hrgwh ‘louse, mite, tick’ _−_ (Pok. 335)
Arm. o(r)ǰil ‘nit’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the suffix -ull. {2} Diminutive form with the suffix -(ë)z. The umlaut of the root vowel and the palatalized consonant have originated in the plural.

ara [mnp] (g) {1} ‘(he-)bear’
PAlb. *ar(K)ϑ- {2}
Alb. ari [m] (tg) ‘(he-)bear’ {3} (AE 81)
PIE *h2rtḱo-, root *h2rtḱ- ‘bear’ _+_ (Pok. 875)
Arm. arǰ ‘bear’
Skt. ŕ̥kṣa- ‘bear’
Notes: {1} Bog. {2} The stem final -θ- has been dropped for reasons of popular etymology, in order to avoid semantic confusion with the hypochoristic-diminutive formations in -th. {3} Alb. enlargement with the suffix -i.

arrë {1} [f] (tg) ‘nut’
PAlb. *arua̅ (AE 82) ‘nut’ _−_ (Pok. 61)
Gr. (Hes.) ἄρυα . τὰ Ἡρακλεωτικά κάρυα
OCS orěxъ ‘nut’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -rr-.

asht [m] (g) ‘bone’
PAlb. *aśt-
Alb. ashtë [n] (tg) ‘bone’ (AE 82)
PIE *h2ost(h2-), root *h2st(h2-) ‘bone’ _+_ (Pok. 783)
Skt. ásthi- ‘bone’

at [m] (tg) {2} ‘father’
PAlb. *at(t)-
Alb. atë [m] (tg) ‘father’ (AE 83)
PIE *(H)at(t)a(H)- ‘father’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 71)
Gr. ἄττα ‘father’
Lat. atta ‘father’
Notes: {1} A nursery word. {2} Weak cases et(-), pl. etër/n (tg) with umlaut of the root vowel, caused by an -i in the following syllable.

ath [verb] (tg) ‘to file down (the teeth)’
PAlb. *aϑ- {1}
Alb. athje [f] (t) ‘Ononis spinosa, thorny undergrowth’ {2}; (i) athët [adj] (tg) ‘harsh, sour’ {3}, cf. eh (AE 83)
PIE *h2oḱ-(u-), root *h2ḱ- ‘sharp, pointed, edged’ _+_ (Pok. 18)
Lat. acus ‘needle’
Notes: {1} Nominal basis for further denominative formations. {2} Alb. formation (verbal noun) with the suffix -je. {3} Denominative formation with the suffix -(ë)t(ë).

eh [verb] (g) ‘to sharpen, point’
PAlb. *aha- {1}, cf. ath (AE 84)
PIE *h2(o)ḱ-uo- ‘sharp, pointed’ _+_ (Pok. 19)
Lat. acuo̅ ‘to sharpen, to point’
Notes: {1} Nominal basis for further denominative formations. ah- probably stands in an originally paradigmatic relationship with Alb. ath(-) < *h2(o)ḱ-(u-).

avdosë [f] (tg) {1} ‘chaffinch’
PAlb. *(h)aui ̊
Alb. afçë [f] (tg) ‘greenfinch’ {2}, cf. vito (AE 84)
PIE *h2eui-, root *h2u ‘bird’ _+_ (Pok. 86)
Lat. avis ‘bird’
Arm. haw ‘bird’
Notes: {1} Compositional formation with -dosë ‘sow; mother animal’. {2} Diminutive formation with -çë.

avull [m] (tg) ‘vapour, damp’
PAlb. *(h)au-ul- {1}, cf. aft (AE 85)
PIE *h2euh1-Vl-, root *h2uh1- ‘vapour, steam’ _+_ (Pok. 82)
Rom. abure ‘steam, damp’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the suffix -ull.

balgë, bajgë [f] (tg) ‘cow-, horse-dung’
PAlb. *balga̅ {1} (AE 86)
PIE *bolg(w)-o- {2} ‘bulb’ _−_ (Pok. 103)
Gr. βολβός ‘onion, bulb’; βόλβιτον ‘cow-dung’
Arm. boɫk ‘radish’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the feminines in -eh2- through a change of the suffix vowel. {2} [AL] Clearly, a non-IE word, considering the root structure, meaning, distribution and irregular anlaut in Armenian.

balë, bajë [f] (tg) ‘blaze, white spot; badger’
PAlb. *balia̅
Alb. bal [m] (tg) ‘piebald dog, horse’ (AE 87)
PIE *bhlH-io/e-, root *bhlH- ‘bright, brilliant, white’ _+_ (Pok. 118)
Gr. φαλιός ‘bright, white-speckled’

ballë [n] (tg) {1} ‘forehead’
PAlb. *bala- (AE 88)
PIE *bhh2-lo- ‘forehead’ _?_ (Pok. 118)
OPr. ballo ‘forehead’
Notes: {1} Nowadays most of the Albanian dialects employ this as a masculine.

barë [n] (t) ‘herb, plant; grass’
PAlb. *baura-
Alb. bar [m] (tg) ‘herb, plant; grass’ (AE 89)
PIE *bhoHu-ro-m, root *bhHu ‘become, grow’ _+_ (Pok. 146 {1})
Gr. φυτόν ‘growth, plant’
Arm. boys ‘shoot, herb, plant’
Notes: {1} The Alb. word is not mentioned by Pok.

(i) bardhë [adj] (tg) ‘white’
PAlb. *barδa- < QIE *bhorHǵ-o-
Alb. barmë [f] (g) ‘bast’ {1} (AE 90)
PIE *bherHǵ-o-, root *bhrHǵ ‘bright, brilliant’ _+_ (Pok. 139)
Go. bairhts ‘bright’
Notes: {1} < Alb. *barδ-mə.

barrë [f] (tg) {1} ‘burden, load; weight; pregnant’
PAlb. *bara̅
Alb. bark [m] (tg) ‘belly, paunch, womb’ {2} (AE 92)
PIE *bhor-eh2 ‘burden, load’ _+_ (Pok. 128)
Gr. φορά ‘burden, load’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -rr-. {2} [AL/MdV] Can reflect Alb. *barVk-. Connection with OIr. brú ‘belly, paunch, womb’ is phonetically impossible.

bashkë [f] (tg) ‘fleece’
PAlb. *baśka̅
Alb. bashkë [adv] (tg) ‘together, jointly’ (AE 93) _?_
Gr. φάσκωλος ‘leathern bag, sack’
Lat. fascis ‘band, bundle’
MIr. basc ‘collar, neck-chain’

bathë [f] (tg) ‘broad bean’
PAlb. *baϑa̅ (AE 94)
PIE *bhaḱ-o- ‘bean, lentil’ _−_ {1} (Pok. 106)
Gr. φακός ‘lentil’
Notes: {1} [AL/MdV] A non-IE term, possibly "related" to Lat. faba, etc.

be [interjection] (tg) ‘bah {2} ??’
PAlb. *be-
Alb. bec [m] (g) ‘lamb’; beç [m] (t) ‘lamb’ {3} (AE 94)
PIE *b(h)e- ‘bah’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 96)
Gr. βῃ̃ ‘bah!’
Notes: {1} Imitation of a sheep’s sound. {2} Imitation of the sound of small cattle. {3} bec and beç are diminutive-hypochoristic formations with the suffix -c/ç.

be [f] (tg) ‘oath, vow’
PAlb. *bei(d-)?
Alb. përbej [verb] (tg) ‘to swear, take the oath’; betoj [verb] (tg) ‘to put on the oath’, cf. besë (AE 94)
PIE *bheidhi-, root *bhidh- ‘persuasion’ _+_ (Pok. 117)
Gr. πειθώ ‘persuasion’

ber [m] (tg) ‘arrow, bolt; spear, lance’
PAlb. *bo̅r-
Alb. bero(n)jë [f] (tg) ‘adder, viper’ {1}; ylber [f] (tg) ‘rainbow’ {2} (AE 95)
PIE *bho̅rs-, root *bhrs ‘point, tip bolt’ _+_ (Pok. 108)
OIr. barr ‘point’
Notes: {1} An Alb. formation with the suffix -o(n)jë. {2} Compound with yll- ‘star’.

rrun(j)ë [f] (t) {2} ‘teg, shearling’
PAlb. *re̅n-ia̅ {1}, cf. berr (AE 96)
PIE *ureh1n-, root *urh1n ‘sheep, lamb’ _+_ (Pok. 1170)
Gr. ἀρήν ‘sheep, lamb’
Notes: {1} Originally diminutive formation in -io/e-. {2} < * r̄oñə.

berr [m] (tg) {1} ‘small cattle, ram, tup’
PAlb. * ̊r(a)n-, cf. rrun(j)ë (AE 95)
PIE *urh1-n- ‘sheep, lamb’ _+_ (Pok. 1170)
Gr. ἄρνες ‘sheep, lamb’; (Hes.) βάριχοι ἄρνες
Notes: {1} A compound with be ‘imitation of a sheep’s sound’.

besë [f] (tg) ‘faithfulness, faith’
PAlb. *biTia̅ {2}
Alb. besoj [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to believe’, cf. be (AE 96)
PIE *bh(e)idhi- {1}, root *bhidh ‘persuasion, oath’ _+_ (Pok. 117)
Gr. πειθώ ‘persuasion’
Notes: {1} Based on the genitive. {2} Phonetically, a full grade form PAlb. *beiTia̅ is also possible. {3} Denominative formation in -o- of Alb. origin.

bërsi {2} [fnp] (tg) ‘rest from wine-, olive-, plum-press’
PAlb. *britia̅ {1} (AE 98) _−_ (Pok. 144)
Lat. bri̅sa ‘husks of wine’
Notes: {1} Apparently, an old Wanderwort. {2} < Alb. *brisí, as an enlarged formation in -i.

bibë [f] (tg) ‘chicken, pullet’
PAlb. *biba̅ (AE 99)
PIE *PiP(P)- {1} ‘to chirp, to peep’ _?_ (Pok. 830)
SCr. bì ̀ba ‘turkey-hen’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} [MdV] Therefore, Indo-European origin is unwarranted.

bir [m] (tg) ‘son’
PAlb. *bir- < QIE *bhi(H)-ro-
Alb. bijë [f] (tg) ‘daughter’ {1}, cf. bij (AE 101)
PIE *bhiH- ‘to beat, to shoot’ _?_ (Pok. 117)
Gr. φι̃τυ ‘shoot, scion’
Notes: {1} Feminine formed on the basis of the plural stem Alb. *biri-a̅.

bisht [m] (tg) ‘tail, brush; stalk, stem’
PAlb. *bi-śt- < QIE *bhi(H)-st-o-, cf. bij (AE 103)
PIE *bhiH- ‘to beat, to shoot’ _?_ (Pok. 117)

i blerë [adj] (tg) ‘green’
PAlb. *blo̅r-
Alb. i blertë [adj] (tg) ‘green’ {1}; bleron [verb] (tg) ‘to bloom, (become) green’ (AE 104)
PIE *bhloh1-ro-, root *bhlh1 ‘blue, green, yellow’ _−_ (Pok. 160)
Lat. flo̅rus ‘golden yellow, reddish-yellow’
Notes: {1} Contains a productive Albanian suffix -të.

bletë [fs/p] (tg) ‘swarm of bees, bee; hive’
PAlb. *m(e)líta̅ {1} < QIE *melit-(t)eh2-, cf. mjaltë (AE 105)
PIE *melit-, root *ml ‘honey’ _+_ (Pok. 723)
Gr. μέλισσα ‘bee’
Notes: {1} Collective formation.

botë [f] {2} (tg) ‘earth, soil; world’
PAlb. *bua̅ta̅ < QIE *bhueh2-t- {1} (AE 107)
PIE *bheuh2- _?_ (Pok. 146)
Skt. bhū́- ‘earth, world’; Skt. bhū́mi- ‘earth, ground, soil’
Notes: {1} Collective formation. {2} Singulare tantum.

bredh {1} [m] (tg) ‘fir, spruce(-fir), beech’
PAlb. *braδ- (AE 107)
PIE *bhrHǵ-o ‘birch, ash’ _+_ (Pok. 139)
Skt. bhūrjá- ‘kind of birch’
Notes: {1} -e- due to umlaut from the plural stem *braδi̅̆.

breshër / breshën [m sg/pl] ‘hail’
PAlb. *bro̅uśVn- {1} < QIE *bhro̅us-e/on- (AE 109)
PIE *, root *bhrus- _?_ (Pok. 171)
OHG bro̅s(a)ma ‘crumb, bend’
Notes: {1} [AL/MdV] The form can also reflect PALb. *breuśVn- < qIE *bhreus-e/on-.

bri / brĩ [m] {1} ‘horn(s), antlers’
PAlb. *bri̅ {2}
Alb. brith [m] (t) {3} ‘pimple, whelk’ (AE 110)
PIE *bhrih1 {4} {5} ‘point, tip, bolt’ _?_ (Pok. 108)
Notes: {1} Seldom in Gheg. {2} Entered the declension of the Alb. nouns with -n-stem quite recently, during the historical period of Albanian. {3} Often occurs in metathesized form birth. {4} Original dual. {5} [MdV] Since the IE root *bhr- (Pok. 108) is hardly ever attested, it may be better to derive bri from PIE *h3bhruH- ‘(eye-)brow’, although the semantic development is unique for this root.

brumë [n/m] (tg) ‘dough, paste, soft material’
PAlb. *brum- < QIE *bhrh1u-mo-
Alb. burmë [f] (g) ‘ripe fig’ (AE 111)
PIE *bhreh1u- ‘to boil up, ferment’ _+_ (Pok. 143)
Lat. de̅frutum ‘new wine’

bung {1} [m] (tg) ‘kind of oak’
PAlb. *ba̅ng-(a̅̆) {2}
Alb. bungë [f] (tg) ‘kind of oak’ (AE 112)
PIE *bheh2ǵ-o- ‘beech, oak(-tree)’ _+_ (Pok. 107)
Gr. φηγός ‘kind of oak’
Lat. fa̅gus ‘beech, oak’
Notes: {1} From Alb. *bong(-). {2} Metathesized from b(h)a̅g-na̅.

burrë {1} [m] (tg) ‘man; husband’
PAlb. *bur- (AE 113)
PIE *bhh2u-ro- _?_ (Pok. 146)
MoHG Bauer ‘countryman; husbandman’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -r̄-.

(i) butë [adj] (tg) ‘soft, mellow, supple; tame(d)’
PAlb. *bugt-
Alb. zbut [verb] (tg) ‘to soak; tame’ {1} (AE 114)
PIE *bhug(h)-to- ‘ductile, molleable’ _+_ (Pok. 152)
Arm. bowt‘ ‘blunt, obtuse’
OIr. bocc ‘tener’
Notes: {1} A denominative verb with the prefix z-.

buzë [f sg/pl] {1} (tg) ‘lip’
PAlb. *bu-(dia̅) (AE 114)
PIE * _−_ (Pok. 103)
Lat. bucca ‘mouth’
MIr. bus ‘lip’
Notes: {1} Collective form in -zë < *-dhieh2. Occurs usually in the plural.

(i) çalë {1} [adj] (tg) ‘lame, limping’
PAlb. * ̊śali- < QIE *skolio- (AE 117)
PIE *(s)kel- ‘to bend, swag, curve’ _+_ (Pok. 928)
Gr. σκολιός ‘crooked, bent’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix d(ë)-.

dardhë [f] (tg) ‘pear(-tree)’
PAlb. *darda̅ {1} (AE 121) _−_ (Pok. 446)
Gr. ἄχερδος ‘pear(-tree)’
Notes: {1} An old loan-word.

darë / dãnë [f] {1} ‘tongs’
PAlb. *dakna̅ < QIE *dn̥ḱ-neh2- (AE 122)
PIE *denḱ- ‘to bite’ _+_ (Pok. 201)
Gr. δάκνω ‘to bite’
OHG zanga ‘tongs’
Notes: {1} With secondarily rhotacized nasal.

darkë [f] (tg) ‘supper, dinner; evening, night’
PAlb. *darka̅ {1} < QIE *dorkw-o-, cf. dars, drekë (AE 122) _−_ {2} (Pok. 210)
Gr. δόρπον ‘supper, dinner; evening’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. a̅-stems. {2} [AL/MdV] The distribution (Greek and Albanian) strongly suggests borrowing.

dash [m] (tg) ‘ram, wether’
PAlb. *dam(e)ś- < QIE *d(o)mh2-(e)s-, cf. dem (AE 124)
PIE *demh2-, root *dmh2 ‘to tame’ _?_ (Pok. 199)
OIr. dam ‘ox’; W. dafad ‘sheep’; Bret. dañvad ‘sheep’

degë [f] (tg) ‘forking, crotch (of tree); bough, branch’
PAlb. *duaiga̅ < QIE *duoi-gheh2- (AE 125)
PIE *duoi-, root *du ‘binary, consisting of two’ _+_ (Pok. 229)
OHG zwi̅g ‘forking, crotch (of tree); bough, branch’

dej [adv] (tg) ‘after tomorrow’
PAlb. *duai-au < QIE *duoi-Hous {1} (AE 126)
PIE *duo-, root *du ‘two’ _?_ (Pok. 228)
OHG zweio ‘by, in two, in pairs’
Notes: {1} Frozen locative dual form.

dẽjë {2} [f] (g) ‘thawing snow’
PAlb. *den(i)- {1}
Alb. (i) dejmë [adj.] (t) ‘flat and arid, barren (land, country, region)’; (i) dẽjun [adj.] (g) ‘flat and arid, barren (land, country, region)’; dejet / dẽjet [verb] ‘to thaw (intr.)’ (AE 127) _?_
Skt. dhánvan- ‘desert, arid land, steppe’
Notes: {1} Nominal basis for further denominative forms. {2} From Alb. denia̅.

dele [f sg/pl] (tg) ‘sheep, ewe’
PAlb. *deilla̅ < QIE *dheh1i-lieh2-
Alb. delme [f sg/pl] (tg) ‘sheep’ {1}, cf. djalë, dosë (AE 127)
PIE *dheh1i-, root *dhh1(i) ‘to suck’ _+_ (Pok. 241)
Gr. θηλή ‘mother’s breast’
Lat. fi̅lia ‘daughter’ {2}
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement with the suffix -m-. {2} [AL/MdV] Can be the same formation as dele.

dell [m] (tg) ‘sinew, tendon; string’
PAlb. *do̅l- < QIE *doh1-lo- (AE 128)
PIE *deh1-, root *dh1 ‘to bind’ _?_ (Pok. 183)

dem [m] (tg) {1} ‘bull-calf; bullock’
PAlb. *dam- < QIE *d(o)mh2-(i)o-, cf. dash (AE 128)
PIE *demh2-, root *dmh2- ‘to tame’ _+_ (Pok. 199)
OIr. dam ‘ox, bullock’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel from the plural stem *dami̅̆.

derë [f] (tg) ‘door’
PAlb. *duo̅ra̅ {1} (AE 138)
PIE *dhuo̅r, root *dhur ‘door’ _+_ (Pok. 278)
Skt. dva̅́r- ‘door’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. a̅-stems. The plural form dy(e)r (tg) points to an analogically rebuilt dual form: Alb. *dyr < *dhur-ih1.

derr {1} [m] (tg) ‘pig’
PAlb. *dair- < QIE *hoiro-
Alb. derk [m] (tg) ‘(young) pig, piglet’ (AE 131)
PIE * _−_ (Pok. 445 {2})
Gr. χοι̃ρος ‘(young) pig, piglet’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -r̄. {2} [AL/MdV] Pok. relates the Albanian and Greek words to the PIE root *ǵher(s)-, but the only certain forms of the verbal root are those with -s-. Since it is hard to separate the Albanian and Greek words, we assume borrowing from a "Balkan" substratum.

dimër / dimën [m] ‘winter’
PAlb. *dimVn- < QIE *hei-mon- (AE 133)
PIE *hei-m-, root *hi ‘winter’ _+_ (Pok. 425)
Gr. χειμών ‘winter’

djalë [m] (tg) {1} ‘son; boy, young (animal)’
PAlb. *di(i)ali- < QIE *dhih1ol-io-, cf. dele, dosë (AE 134)
PIE *dh(e)ih1-(o)l-, root *dhh1(i) ‘suckling’ _?_ (Pok. 241)
Lat. fi̅lius ‘son’
Notes: {1} The plural form dje(l)m (< Alb. *diali̅) shows, apart from the umlaut of the root vowel, also an m-enlargement, which often appears in the inherited vocabulary of Alb. {2} [MdV] Alternatively, djalë may derive from *dela or *delom and the plural dje(l)m from *delm-. The stem *del- might be cognate with the verb dal ‘to go out’.

djath(ë) [n/m] (tg) ‘cheese’
PAlb. *deϑ (AE 135)
PIE *dhe-dhh1, root *dhh1(i) ‘milk(-product)’ _+_ (Pok. 241)
Skt. dádhi- ‘curdled milk’; OPr. dadan ‘milk’

rrath [m] (g) {1} ‘wheel, circle’
PAlb. *raϑ (AE 136)
PIE *Hrot-o-, root *Hrt ‘wheel’ _+_ (Pok. 866)
Skt. rátha- ‘chariot’
Notes: {1} Plural form rrathë (tg); the singular form often appears with umlaut of the root vowel (rreth). The origin of -th is unclear.

ndjath [adv] (g) {1} ‘at/to the right’
PAlb. *deϑ
Alb. (i) djathë [adj] (tg) ‘right’; (i) djathtë [adj] (tg) ‘right’ {2} (AE 137)
PIE *deḱs(i), root *dḱ ‘at/to the right’ _+_ (Pok. 190)
Gr. δεξιτερός ‘right’
Lat. dexter ‘right’
OHG zeso ‘to the right’
Notes: {1} Alb. form with the prefix (a)n-. {2} Alb. enlargement with the suffix -të.

dje, die [adv] (tg) ‘yesterday’
PAlb. *(d)die (AE 138)
PIE *hdies ‘yesterday’ _+_ (Pok. 416)
OIr. indé ‘yesterday’

djersë [f] (tg) ‘perspiration, sweat’
PAlb. *(ui)dertia̅ < QIE *suid(e)r-ti- {1}
Alb. djers [verb] (tg) ‘to sweat’ {2} (AE 139)
PIE *su(e)id-r-, root *suid ‘perspiration, sweat’ _+_ (Pok. 1043)
Gr. ἱδρώς ‘sweat, perspiration’
Notes: {1} As the basis for further denominative forms. {2} Beside 1sg. pres. dirs(em).

dorë [f] (tg) {1} ‘hand’
PAlb. *de̅ra̅ {2} (AE 140)
PIE *hesr- ‘hand’ _+_ (Pok. 447)
Gr. χείρ ‘hand’
Notes: {1} The plural form duar / du(e)r goes back to an original dual form *ǵhesr-(h1)e. {2} Has entered the declension of the fem. a̅-stems.

dosë [f] (tg) ‘sow; mother animal’
PAlb. *de̅tia̅, cf. djalë, dele (AE 140)
PIE *dheh1-tieh2, root *dhh1(i) ‘parent, mother animal’ _+_ (Pok. 241)

dra [m] (tg) ‘sediment, dregs; smudged butter; sweepings, dirt’
PAlb. *drag(-)
Alb. ndrag [verb] (tg) ‘to make/get filthy, dirty’ {1} (AE 141)
PIE *dhrogh- {2} ‘sediment, dregs’ (Pok. 251)
Lat. frace̅s ‘oil dregs’
ON dregg ‘dregs’
Notes: {1} Alb. form with the prefix (a)n-. {2} [AL/MdV] The IE date of this family is uncertain.

dre / drẽ [m] {1} ‘stag, deer’
PAlb. * ̊ran-
Alb. drãng [m] (g) ‘young animal’ (AE 142)
PIE *urh1n- ‘lamb’ _?_ (Pok. 1170)
Gr. (Hes.) ἀράνης . ἔλαφος
Notes: {1} Prefixed form with the Alb. prefix d(V)-; drẽ from the plural stem drani̅̆. {2} [MdV] Whether d(V)- really was an existing prefix is doubted by Demiraj, AE 143.

dredhë {1} [f] (tg) ‘strawberry’
PAlb. *draδ- (AE 144) _−_ {2}
Lat. fra̅gum ‘strawberry’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel after the plural stem Alb. draδi̅̆. {2} An old Wanderwort.

drekë [f] (tg) ‘lunch, meal; midday, noon’
PAlb. *drika̅ < QIE *dr̥kw-eh2, cf. dars, darkë (AE 144) _−_ {1} (Pok. 210)
Gr. δόρπον ‘supper, dinner; evening’
Notes: {1} [AL/MdV] The distribution (Greek and Albanian) strongly suggests borrowing.

dritë [f] (tg) {1} ‘light, brightness; beam, ray’
PAlb. *drikt- < QIE *dr̥ḱ-t(o)-
Alb. ndrit [verb 3sp] (tg) ‘lights, shines, glists’ (AE 145)
PIE *derḱ-, root *drḱ- ‘to look; appear’ _+_ (Pok. 213)
Skt. dr̥ṣṭá- ‘appeared’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. -a̅-stems. Usually, a singulare tantum.

drithë [f pl] (tg) ‘cereals; wheat’
PAlb. *driϑ- < QIE *hr(i)sd(h)- (AE 145) ‘(kind of) cereals; barley’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 446)
Gr. κριθή ‘barley’
OHG gersta ‘barley’
Notes: {1} Probably an old Wanderwort.

drizë [f] (tg) {1} ‘thorn(-bush), Christ’s thorn’
PAlb. *dri-(dia̅) (AE 146) _?_
Gr. δρίος ‘thicket, brake; bush’
Notes: {1} Collective with the suffix -zë.

dru / drũ [m] ‘wood; tree; stem, trunk’
PAlb. *dru(n)- {1}
Alb. drỹ [m] (g) ‘lock, door-bolt (of wood)’ {2} (AE 146)
PIE *d(o)ru, root *dr ‘wood’ _+_ (Pok. 214)
Gr. δρυ̃ς ‘tree, oak’
Skt. da̅́ru- ‘wood’
Notes: {1} An analogical -n-stem. {2} PAlb. dru-(i)io-.

dua [m] (t) {1} ‘sheaf’
PAlb. *de̅ma
Alb. duaj / du(e)j [m pl] ‘sheaf’ {2} (AE 149)
PIE *deh1-mn, root *dh1 ‘band’ _+_ (Pok. 183)
Gr. -δημα ‘band’
Skt. da̅́man- ‘band’
Notes: {1} From a preform *doN < PAlb. *de̅m(-). {2} With added -j.

dushk [m] (tg) ‘kind of bush, shrub’
PAlb. *duś-k- (AE 150) _?_ (Pok. 178)
Lat. dūmus ‘scrub’
OIr. doss ‘bush’

dy {1} [num m] (tg); dy {2} [num f/n] (tg) ‘two’
PAlb. *duuai < QIE *duuo-ih1 (AE 151)
PIE *duo-, root *du ‘two’ _+_ (Pok. 228)
Skt. dvé ‘two’ [f/n]
Notes: {1} From a preform Alb. *dui̅̆. {2} [dy:], under the influence of tri [tri:] ‘three’ [f/n].

dyllë [m] (tg) ‘wax, resin’
PAlb. *dūl- < QIE *huslo-
Alb. dëllinjë [f] (tg) ‘juniper’ (AE 152) _−_ {1} (Pok. 448)
Gr. χῡλός ‘juice’
Notes: {1} [AL/MdV] The IE date of this word is very uncertain.

dhall(ë) [f/m/n] (tg) {1} ‘butter-milk’
PAlb. *δal- {2} (AE 153) _−_ (Pok. 400)
Gr. γάλα ‘milk’
Rom. zară ‘butter-milk’
Notes: {1} Singulare tantum. {2} PAlb. *δ points to QIE *ǵ-. {3} [MdV] Latin lac, lactis and Greek γάλα ‘milk’ point to *ǵ̣̣l-, but this would not yield Alb. dh-; therefore, the word for ‘milk’ may be a borrowing of an unknown language with the forms *ǵal-, *ǵl-.

dhe {1} [m] (tg) ‘earth, ground’
PAlb. *(d)δo̅m {2} < QIE *hdho̅m (AE 155)
PIE *dhhem-, root *dhh ‘earth, ground’ _+_ (Pok. 414)
Gr. χθών ‘earth, ground’
Notes: {1} From *δeN. {2} [MdV] The absence of diphthongization in *δēm in front of a word-final nasal would be surprising; hence the PAlb. form may already have been *δ.

dhelpë [f] (g) ‘fox’
PAlb. *δeli-(pə)
Alb. dhelpër / dhelpën [f] ‘fox’ {1} (AE 156) _?_ (Pok. 367)
Gr. γαλεή ‘weasel, marten’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the suffix (ë)rë / -(ë)në < *-e/ono-. A contamination with the PIE word for ‘fox’ is conceivable.

dhen [f pl] (t) {1} ‘(herd of) small cattle’
PAlb. *δent-
Alb. dhẽn(d) [f pl] (g) ‘(herd of) small cattle’ (AE 157)
PIE *ǵenh1-ti-, root *ǵnh1 ‘family, clan; race’ _+_ (Pok. 373)
Lat. ge̅ns ‘race, nation, people; crowd’
Notes: {1} Occurs only as a collective name for small cattle.

dhëmb / dhãm(b) [m] ‘tooth’
PAlb. *δamb- (AE 158)
PIE *ǵombh-o-s, root *ǵmbh ‘tooth’ _+_ (Pok. 369)
Gr. γόμφος ‘tooth’

dhëndërr / dhãn(d)ërr [m] {1} ‘son-in-law, bridegroom’
PAlb. *δaNta̅r < QIE *ǵVm(H)-te̅r (AE 159)
PIE *ǵemH-, root *ǵmH- ‘to marry’ _+_ (Pok. 369)
Skt. ja̅́ma̅tar- ‘son-in-law’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -r̄.

edh [m] (tg) ‘kid’
PAlb. *aiδ- < QIE *(H)aiǵ-
Alb. dhi [f] (tg) ‘(she-)goat’ {1}; (i) dhirë / (i) dhinë [adj] ‘goat’s (milk, wool, skin)’ {2} (AE 160) _−_ {3} (Pok. 13)
Gr. αἴξ ‘(she-)goat’
Arm. ayc ‘(she-)goat’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. *aiδ-í(i)a̅. {2} Alb. formation with the suffix -(ë)në/-(ë)rë < *-e/ono-. {3} Probably, an ancient Wanderwort.

dhjamë [m/n] (tg) ‘fat’
PAlb. *δem(-) (AE 161) _−_ (Pok. 175)
Gr. δημός ‘fat’
Rom. zeamă ‘juice; sauce’

fjalë [f] (tg) ‘word’
PAlb. *feln- < QIE *spel(H)-en-eh2 (AE 134)
PIE *spel(H)- ‘to speak’ (Pok. 985)
Arm. ar̄a-spel ‘fable, proverb’
OHG spel ‘speech’

dhjetë {1} [num] (tg) ‘ten’
PAlb. *(-)dek(a)t-
Alb. (i) dhjetë [num ord] (tg) ‘tenth’; njëmbëdhjetë [num] (tg) ‘eleven’; tridhjetë [num] (tg) ‘thirty’ (AE 162)
PIE *deḱmt- ‘ten’ (Pok. 191)
Lith. dẽšimt ‘ten’; OCS desętь ‘ten’
Notes: {1} The fricative in anlaut has arisen in composition. The final -ë is due to levelling with the decad compounds and with their respective ordinals.

dhurë / dhunë [f] {1} ‘injury, blemish, violence’
PAlb. *(e)δuna̅ (AE 163)
PIE *h1(e)dun-eh2 ‘pain, smart?’
Gr. ὀδύνη ‘pain, smart, harm’
Notes: {1} Occurs beside dhunë with retention of the rhotacism of the intervocalic nasal.

elb {2} [m] (tg) ‘barley(corn)’
PAlb. *albi- (AE 164)
PIE *h2(o)lbhi- ‘kind of cereal, barley’ _ _{1} (Pok. 29)
Gr. ἄλφι ‘barley flour; pot-barley’
Notes: {1} Possibly, non-IE. {2} With umlaut of the root vowel caused by -i- in the following syllable.

emër / emën [m] ‘name’
PAlb. *enmen- (AE 165)
PIE *h1n(h3)men- ‘name’ (Pok. 321)
OCS imę ‘name’; OPr. emnes ‘name’; OIr. ainm ‘name’
Notes: {1} [MdV] The vowel e- is difficult to account for when we start from the PIE preform. It cannot be excluded that emër was borrowed from Latin (n)ōmen, -inis.

end(ë) / ẽnd(ë) [m/f] {2} ‘blooming; bloom, pollen’
PAlb. *and- {1}
Alb. end / ẽnd [verb] ‘to bloom’ (AE 166)
PIE *h2ndh-o- ‘sprout, germ?’ (Pok. 40)
Gr. ἄνθος ‘sprout, flower’
Notes: {1} As a nominal basis for further Alb. forms. {2} With umlaut of the root vowel from pl. Alb. andi̅̆.

(i) epër [adj] (tg) ‘higher, upper’
PAlb. *apir- < QIE *h1opi-ro-
Alb. (i) sipërm [adj] (tg) ‘above’; tepër [adv] (tg) ‘more, very’ (AE 167)
PIE *h1(o/e)pi- ‘on, upon’ (Pok. 323)
Gr. ὄπιθε(ν) ‘behind’

(h)ethe [fnp] (tg) ‘fever’
PAlb. *haiδ
Alb. (h)eth [verb] (tg) ‘to stimulate mating’ (AE 168)
PIE *h2eidh-o- ‘burning, fire’ _?_ (Pok. 11)
Gr. αἶθος ‘burning, fire’
Skt. édha(s)- ‘firewood’

(i) ëmbël / (i) ãm(b)ël [adj] {1} ‘sweet, mild’
PAlb. * ̊m(e)lit- < QIE *m(e)lit-
Alb. tãm(b)ël [m] (g) ‘milk’ (AE 169)
PIE *meli-t(-) ‘honey’ _?_ (Pok. 723)
Ir. milis ‘sweet, mild’; W melys ‘sweet, mild’
Notes: {1} From a prefixed Alb. *ambëlt < *an-blit. {2} [MdV] Demiraj AE 168 suggests an intensive prefix *(e)n-/(a)n-; alternatively, one might prefer the prefix *en- ‘in’: *en-mlit- ‘which has honey (in it)’ .

ëmë / ãmë [f] ‘mother’
PAlb. *am(m)a̅̆ (AE 175)
PIE *(H)am(m)a(H) ‘mother’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 36)
OHG amma ‘mother, nurse’
Notes: {1} Nursery word.

ëndë / ãn(d)ë [f] ‘desire, inclination, pleasure’
PAlb. *anTa̅ < QIE *h2(o)nh1-teh2- (AE 170)
PIE *h2(o)nh1- ‘breath’ (Pok. 38)
Gr. (Hes.) ἀντάς . πνοάς
ON andi ‘spirit, soul’

ëndërr / ãn(d)ërr [f] {1} ‘dream’
PAlb. * ̊dra̅ < QIE *dreH- {2} (AE 171)
PIE *dreH- ‘sleep, to sleep’ (Pok. 226)
Skt. nidra̅́- ‘slumber, snooze, sleepiness’
Notes: {1} Prefixed with Alb. *(a)n- (< *h2en-). {2} The reconstruction is not entirely certain. Under the assumption of epenthetic -d- (within -nr-), ëndërr may be connected with Arm. anowrj, Gr. ὀναρ, which have the same meaning: possibly PAlb. anra̅ < *h2ṇr-? [3} [MdV] Rather *h3nr-.

flugë [f] (g) ‘shingle’
PAlb. *śpl(e)u-g(h) {1}
Alb. flegë [f] (tg) ‘splinter, chip’; flegër [f] (tg) ‘wing (of the nose), wooden plate’ (AE 172)
PIE *(s)pel-eu-, s-bhel-eu- ‘to split’ _?_ (Pok. 985)
Notes: {1} With Alb. suffix -g(ë).

gardh [m] (tg) ‘hedge, fence’
PAlb. *garδ- (AE 175)
PIE *ghordh-o- ‘hedge, fence’ (Pok. 444)
Lith. gar̃das ‘fold, pen’; OIc. garðr ‘hedge, fence, court’

ditë {1} [f] (tg) ‘day’
PAlb. *di̅t- < QIE *dih2-t(i)- (AE 176)
PIE *deih2- ‘to lighten, shine’ (Pok. 183)
OCS dьnь ‘day’
Notes: {1} Pl. dit from PAlb. *di̅ti̅̆.

gisht [m] (tg) ‘finger’
PAlb. *g(u)Víś(t)- (AE 178)
PIE *guV-ís-(t-) ‘finger?’ _?_ (Pok. 481)
W. bys ‘finger’; OCorn. bis ‘finger’

gogël [f] (tg) ‘acorn; small and round object’
PAlb. *ga̅gul < QIE *gwe(l)h2-gwl̥h2 {1} (AE 179)
PIE *gwelh2- ‘oak?, acorn’ (Pok. 419)
Lith. gìlė ‘acorn’
Notes: {1} Basic form with broken reduplication.

grua {1} [f] (tg) ‘woman’
PAlb. *gra̅̆u- < QIE *ǵreh2u- (AE 180)
PIE *ǵerh2- ‘?’ (Pok. 390)
Gr. γραυ̃ς ‘old woman’
Notes: {1} From Alb. *grou-.

gur [m] (tg) ‘stone, rock’
PAlb. *gur(i)-
Alb. ngrij [verb] (tg) ‘to freeze, curdle; to turn cold’ {1} (AE 181)
PIE *gwrH-i- ‘mountain, rock, stone’ (Pok. 477)
Skt. girí- ‘mountain’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. *guri-(ni-).

gjak [m] (tg) ‘blood’
PAlb. *śak- < QIE *sokw-o- (AE 181)
PIE *s(u)okw-o- ‘sap’ (Pok. 1044)
Gr. ὀπός ‘sap’
Lith. sakaĩ ‘sap, juice’

gjalpë [n/m] (tg) ‘butter’
PAlb. *śelp- (AE 182)
PIE *selp- ‘butter’ (Pok. 901)
Gr. (Hes.) ἔλπος . ἔλαιον
Skt. sarpís ‘butter’

gjallë [adj, adv] (tg) ‘alive, living’
PAlb. *śal(u)-
Alb. ngjall [verb] (tg) ‘to heal, revive’ (AE 182)
PIE *soluo- ‘safe and sound, unhurt, whole’ (Pok. 979)
Skt. sárva- ‘unhurt, whole’

gjarpër / gjarpën [m] ‘snake, serpent’
PAlb. *śerpVn- < QIE *serp-e/ono- (AE 183)
PIE *serp- ‘to creep’ (Pok. 912)
Lat. serpe̅ns ‘snake, serpent’

gjashtë {1} [num] (tg) ‘six’
PAlb. *śe(K)ś-ta̅ < QIE *seḱs-(to-)
Alb. (i) gjashtë [num ord] (tg) ‘sixth’ (AE 184)
PIE *s(u)eḱs ‘six’ (Pok. 1044)
OCS šestь ‘six’; OCS šestъ ‘sixth’
Notes: {1} With final syllable -të by analogical levelling with the corresponding ordinal.

(i) gjatë [adj] (tg) ‘long’
PAlb. *glag(V)-ta̅ {1} (AE 185)
PIE *dlh1gho- ‘long’ (Pok. 197)
Skt. di̅rghá- ‘long’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement with the adjectival suffix -to-.

glep [m] (t); gjep [m] (tg) ‘sting, nettle’
PAlb. *glo̅p- < QIE *gloH-(p-)
Alb. glëmp (t), gjemb (tg) [m] ‘sting, prickle’ (AE 186)
PIE *gwel(H)- ‘to prick’ (Pok. 470)
Lith. geluõ ‘sting’; geluonìs ‘sting’
Notes: {1} With -m- added after thumb ‘prickle’.

gath [m] (g) ‘catkins’
PAlb. *guaϑ-
Alb. gjethe [fnp] (tg) ‘foliage’ {1}; gjeth(e) [f/m] (tg) ‘leaf’ {2} (AE 187)
PIE *guos-do- ‘boughs, foliage’ (Pok. 480)
OHG questa ‘bunch of leaves’; OSr. gvozd ‘forest’
Notes: {1} From the plural stem, where the umlaut of the root vowel has arisen. {2} Singularized plural form.

gjithë [pronindef] (tg) ‘each; whole, all, full’
PAlb. *śi̅ϑ- < QIE *sih2-ḱo- {1} (AE 188)
PIE *sih2- ‘one?’
Gr. ἴα ‘one’; ἰός ‘one and the same’
Notes: {1} An Alb. formation.

gjỹmës {1} [adj] (g); gjysmë {2} [adj] {3} (tg) ‘half’
PAlb. *śa̅mi-(ti-)
PIE *se̅mi- ‘half’ (Pok. 905)
Lat. se̅m(i)- ‘half’
Notes: {1} From Alb. *ȥ̌umis < *ȥ̌omiti-. {2} With metathesis in inlaut.

gjizë [f {2}] (tg) ‘whey-cheese, curds and whey; curdled milk’
PAlb. *śiN-dia̅ {1} < QIE *s(e)iN- (AE 189)
PIE *sei-N- ‘to drop, drip, dribble, flow’ (Pok. 889)
OHG seim ‘Honigseim’; W. hufen ‘cream’
Notes: {1} Collective Alb. formation. {2} Singulare tantum.

gjollë [f] (tg) ‘Salzlecke’
PAlb. *śa̅la̅ (AE 190)
PIE *seh2l- ‘salt’ (Pok. 878)
Lat. sa̅l ‘salt’

gju / gjũ [m] ‘knee’
PAlb. *glun- {1} < QIE *ǵnu-n(o)- (AE 190)
PIE *ǵ(o)nu- ‘knee’ (Pok. 380)
OIr. glún ‘knee’; Go. kniu ‘knee’
Notes: {1} With dissimilation of the first -n-.

gjumë [m] (tg) ‘sleep’
PAlb. *śubn- (AE 192)
PIE *sup-no- ‘sleep’ (Pok. 1048)
Gr. ὕπνος ‘sleep’

gjysh [m] (tg) ‘grandfather’
PAlb. *śūśi- (AE 192)
PIE *suH-s-(i)o- ‘begetter’ _?_ (Pok. 913)
Skt. sūṣa̅́ ‘who gives birth’; Skt. sūṣán- ‘god of bearing’

halë [f] (tg) ‘awn, beard; nettle-leaf; fish-bone’
PAlb. *halia̅ < QIE *s-Kol(H)-ieh2 {1} (AE 193)
PIE *s-Kol(H)- ‘to cut, snip; prick’ (Pok. 923)
W. col(a) ‘point, awn, beard’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, s-Kol(H)g(h)- is also possible.

hardhëlë [f] (t) ‘lizard, lacerta agilis’
PAlb. *harδ-(Vl-)
Alb. hardhëjë [f] (t) ‘lizard, gecko’; hardhje [f] (g) ‘lizard, gecko’ {1} (AE 194)
PIE *sKord-(Vlo-) _−_ (Pok. 934)
Gr. (σ)κορδύλος ‘newt, Triton palustris’
Notes: {1} The original word formation is not entirely clear.

(h)ardhi {2} [f] (tg) ‘vine-branch, grape-vine, shot of a vine’
PAlb. *harδ- {1} (AE 195)
PIE *HorT- ‘vine-branch, grape-vine, shot of a vine’ (Pok. 782)
Arm. ort‘ ‘grape-vine’
Notes: {1} Considering the anlaut, a reconstruction h3erT- is very attractive. {2} Alb. enlargement with the collective suffix -í.

helm {1} [m] (tg) ‘poison’
PAlb. *hal(i)m- < QIE *sKol(i)mo- (AE 198)
PIE *sKel- ‘to cut (off)’ (Pok. 923)
OHG scalmo ‘plague, pestilence’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel.

hell [m] (tg) ‘spit; icicle {1}’
PAlb. *ho̅l- < QIE *sKo̅l- (AE 199)
PIE *sKel- ‘to cut (off)’ (Pok. 923)
Gr. σκω̃λος ‘arrow, sharp pole’
Notes: {1} Pl. hej(e) from Alb. heli̅̆.

herdhe {3} [fnp] (tg) {4} ‘testicles’
PAlb. *harδ {2} (AE 199)
PIE *Herǵh- {1} ‘testicle’ (Pok. 782)
Gr. ὀρχεις ‘testicles’
Av. ərəzi ‘testicle’
Notes: {1} *H2-3erǵh-. {2} Original dual *H2-3erǵh-ih1. {3} With umlaut of the root vowel. {4} Plurale tantum.

hënë / hãnë [f] ‘moon’
PAlb. *hand-na̅ < QIE *sK(ə)nd-(neh2) (AE 199)
PIE *(s)Kend- ‘to lighten, glitter, glisten’ _?_ (Pok. 526)
Skt. (ś)candrá- ‘brilliant’; MBret. cann ‘full moon’

hidh [m] (g) ‘nettle’
PAlb. *hiδ- {1} < QIE *h2idh-
Alb. (i) (h)idhët [adj] (tg) ‘bitter’ {2} (AE 200)
PIE *h2eidh- ‘to burn?’ (Pok. 12)
Gr. αἴθω ‘to burn’
Lith. aitrùs ‘bitter’
Notes: {1} Nominal basis for further denominative forms. {2} Alb. form with the adjectival suffix -(ë)t(ë).

hie [f] (tg) ‘shade, shadow’
PAlb. *hi(i)a̅ {1} (AE 201)
PIE *sḱeh1-ieh2- ‘shade, shadow’ (Pok. 917)
Gr. σκιά shade, shadow
ToB skio ‘shade, shadow’
Notes: {1} From the PIE sḱh1-ieh2-s.

hir [m] (tg) ‘grace, blessing, goodwill {2}’
PAlb. *hi̅r- {1} (AE 201) ‘?’ _?_ (Pok. 917)
Gr. ἱερός ‘holy’ {3}
Osc. aisusis ‘sacrifiis’
Notes: {1} From His-ro- (?), if not a Gr. loanword. {2} Occurs only in the Christian church language. {3} Aeol. ἷρος.

hirrë {1} [f] (tg) ‘whey; serum’
PAlb. *hi̅ra̅ < QIE *sḱiH-ro- (AE 202) ‘to dim, shimmer?’ (Pok. 917)
OIc. skírr ‘clean, clear’
Notes: {1} With ‘hardening’ of the inlaut.

(i) hollë {1} [adj] (tg) ‘thin, slender’
PAlb. *ha̅̆ul-
Alb. huall [m] (tg) ‘honeycomb’ {2}; holli [f] (tg) ‘oblong, hollow’ {3} (AE 203)
PIE *h2eu-lo- ‘hollow’ (Pok. 88)
Gr. αὐλός ‘oblong, hollow’
ON (huann-)jóli ‘hollow stalk, stem’
Notes: {1} From an Alb. nominal base hoɫ-. {2} Pl. hoj(e) from Alb. hoɫi. {3} With -í-enlargement.

(i) (h)uoj [adj] (g) {3}; (i) huaj / (i) (h)u(e)j [adj] {2} ‘foreign, strange’
PAlb. *hau- < QIE *h2eu-os {1} (AE 203)
PIE *h2eu- ‘there, that, alter, alius’ (Pok. 73)
Av. auua- ‘that, ille’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, h2euso- is also possible. Maybe, an orig. genetive. {2} With addition of -j-. {3} Buz., Budi.

hurdhë [f] (tg) ‘garlic’
PAlb. *horδ- (AE 204) ‘garlic’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 941)
Gr. σκόρ(ο)δον ‘garlic’
Notes: {1} Probably, a non-IE Wanderwort.

(h)urdhë [f] (tg) ‘pond, pool; swamp’
PAlb. *urδ < QIE *uh1r-d(h)eh2 (AE 205)
PIE *uh1r- ‘water’ (Pok. 80)
Skt. va̅́r- ‘water’; OPr. wurs ‘pond, pool’

hut [adv] (tg) ‘in vain, vainly; empty, idle’
PAlb. *hut- < QIE *h2ut-
Alb. hutoj [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to keep in the air; hebetate’ (AE 205)
PIE *h2eu-t- ‘downward(s)’ (Pok. 72)
Gr. αὔτως ‘in vain’
Go. auÞs ‘desert’ [adj.]
Notes: {1} Denominative form with suffix -ó-.

yll {1} [m] (tg) ‘star’
PAlb. *(h)ūl- < QIE *h1us-lo- (AE 206)
PIE *h1eus- ‘to burn, glow’ (Pok. 347)
OIc. usli ‘embers’
Notes: {1} Pl. yj from Alb. *yɫi.

(i) im [pronposs Nomsm] (tg); (i) em [pronposs Nomsm] (g) {1} ‘my’
PAlb. *(e)m- (AE 206)
PIE *h1mos {1} ‘my’ (Pok. 702)
Gr. ἐμός ‘my’
Arm. im ‘my’
Notes: {1} Possibly with secundary lowering of the root vowel. Nompm (e) mi ’my’ < *mi̅̆ < PAlb *(e)moi.

jetër [pron] {2} (tg) ‘other, another’
PAlb. *éter-
Alb. {4} (AE 208)
PIE *h1e-tero- {1} (Pok. 284)
OCS eterъ ‘somebody’; Umbr. etro- ‘another’
Notes: {1} From the pronominal stem h1e-. {2} Indefinite pronoun. {3} < Alb. t(ə) jetər. {4} Mnp (të) tjerë < *h1e-tér-.

ju [pronpers] (tg) ‘you’
PAlb. *iu- {1} (AE 209)
PIE *iu(H)-? ‘you’ (Pok. 513)
Lith. jūs ‘you’; Go. jus ‘you’
Notes: {1} Possibly, although less probably < *usm-.

ka [m] (tg) {1} ‘ox (for community services)’
PAlb. *kau- < QIE *ḱm̥-uo- (AE 210)
PIE *ḱem- {1} ‘hornless’ _?_ (Pok. 556)
Lith. šmùlis ‘hornless cow, ox’
Notes: {1} Pl. qe from Alb. *ka-i̅̆. {2} Alternatively, one might suggest an ancient loanword from PIE gwou- ‘ox’, from an IE language in which the velar series had become voiceless, cf. Arm. kow, OHG chuo.

kalli {1} [m] (tg); kallëz [fnp] (t) {2} ‘ear’
PAlb. *kal- (AE 211)
PIE *kolH- ‘awn, beard’ (Pok. 545)
OCS kolъ ‘plug, peg’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement with the suffix -í. {2} Nowadays, it occurs singularized as a diminutive form in many dialects.

kashtë [f] (tg) ‘straw, chaff’
PAlb. *kalś-ta̅
Alb. kashër [f] (g) ‘reed, rush, Juncus idaeus’ {1} (AE 213)
PIE *kol(H)-(e)s- ‘sting, awn’ (Pok. 545)
OCS klasъ ‘ear’; OHG hul(i)s ‘holly(-tree)’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. *kalś-(V)ra̅.

karpë [f] (tg) ‘rock, crag’
PAlb. *karpa̅ < QIE *kor(H)p-o- (AE 213)
PIE *(s)ker(H)p- ‘?’ (Pok. 944)
Norw. skarv ‘bare rock’

keq {1} [adv] (tg); (i) keq {2} [adj] (tg) ‘bad(ly)’
PAlb. *kaki̅̆- (AE 216) _−_
Gr. κακός ‘bad’
Notes: {1} With umlaut a > e. {2} Mnp. (të) këqi(j) < *kakí-.

k(ë) ̊ [particle] (tg) {1} ‘here’
PAlb. *ku ̊ (AE 217)
PIE *kwu- ‘who, where’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 644)
Go. -hun [pron] {2}
Notes: {1} Deictic particle of remote distance. It only occurs in the pronominal system as the first member of a compound. {2} Pronominal element for the formation of indefinite pronouns. {3} [MdV] It seems at least equally likely that kë- derives from Latin eccum. Demiraj AE 217speaks about ‘near’ deixis rather than ‘remote’.

kë / kãn(d) [pron Accsm/n/f] {1} ‘who, whom (?)’
PAlb. *kaN < QIE *kwo-m
Alb. kã [pron Accsm/n/f] (g) ‘who, whom’; kënd / kãn(d) [pron Accsm/f/n] ‘anyone’ {2} (AE 218)
PIE *kwo- ‘who’ (Pok. 644)
Lat. quom ‘cum’
Notes: {1} Interrogative and relative pronoun. {2} Indefinite pronoun; compound < kwom-to-. {3} [MdV] The derivation of kënd < kwom-tom is problematic since *-nt- yields -n- in the of noun paradigms. Also, the oldest Geg texts have ke, ka (nasalized vowels), and also kun, kana (Buz.). Hence, -d in kënd must be a later addition. Its earliest occurrence seems to be in the indefinites (e.g. Bogd. as ... kand), hence one might think of a reduced form of -do ‘will’, as in the later form kushdo.

këlysh {1} [m] (tg) ‘kid, young, puppy, kitten’
PAlb. *kull- < QIE *kwl̥-io-
Alb. kulish [m] (t) ‘kid, young, puppy, kitten’; kuç/c [m] (tg) {2} ‘doggy’ (AE 218)
PIE *(s)k(w)el- ‘to cry, shriek; roar, howl’ (Pok. 550)
Gr. (Hes.) κύλλα . σκύλαξ
Lith. kãlė ‘bitch’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement with the diminutive suffix -ush. {2} from Alb. kul-ç with the diminutive hypochoristic suffix -ç/c.

kohë [f] (tg) ‘time; span; weather; epoch’
PAlb. *ke̅ua̅ {1} (AE 221)
PIE *keh1s-(u-) ‘time?’ (Pok. 636)
OCS časъ ‘time’; OPr. ki̅sman ‘time’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. -eh2-stems. {2} [MdV] Kortlandt’s arguments (SSGL 10 [1987], p. 222) against a connection with the Slavic word for ‘time’ seem convincing to me. No alternative etymology has been worked out in detail.

kollë [f {1}] (tg) ‘cough’
PAlb. *ka̅la̅ < QIE *kwa̅̆sla̅ (AE 222)
PIE *kw(e)h2s-, kwa̅̆s- ‘cough’ (Pok. 649)
Lith. kosulỹs ‘cough’; Latv. kâsulis ‘cough’
Notes: {1} Singulare tantum.

kop(ë)sht {1} [m] (tg) ‘garden’
PAlb. *ka̅p-(śt-) (AE 222)
PIE *keh2po- ‘land, garden’ (Pok. 529)
Gr. (Dor.) κα̃πος ‘garden’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with the suffix -(ë)sht(ë).

krah [m] (tg) ‘(upper)arm, wing, shoulder’
PAlb. *krau- < QIE *ḱreh2u-, ḱrh2eu- (AE 224)
PIE *ḱreh2u-, ḱruh2- ‘limb’ (Pok. 624)
Lat. crūs, -ris ?

kërci / kërcĩ [m] {1} ‘shank, lower part of the leg, shin(-bone)’
PAlb. *krū ̊
Alb. kërbisht [m] (tg) ‘rump-bone’ {2} (AE 224)
PIE *ḱruh2-s ‘limb’ (Pok. 624)
Lat. crūs ‘shank, leg’
Arm. srownk‘ ‘shin-bone’
Notes: {1} Metathesized from Alb. kri-tsi. {2} Compound Alb. kri-bišt.

krap {1} [m] (t); krep {2} [m] (tg) ‘rock, crag, sandstone’
PAlb. *krap- < QIE *krop-
Alb. shkrep [m] (tg) ‘rock, crag, sandstone’ {3} (AE 225)
PIE *(s)Krep- ‘to cut?’ (Pok. 944)
MHG schrave ‘rugged cliff, crag’; MHG schroff ‘crag’
Notes: {1} Pl. krepe with umlaut a > e. {2} Singularized Alb. krapi̅̆. {3} With intensive prefix sh-.

krënd [m] (t) ‘brushwood’
PAlb. *grand- < QIE *ghrondh-, ghrh2enT-
Alb. krënde / krãnde [fnp] ‘brushwood, fodder, corn-cob’ {1}; grãth [m] (g) ‘blade of straw’ {2} (AE 225)
PIE *gher(H)- ‘to stick out (of)’ (Pok. 440)
W. grann ‘eyelid’; SCr. grána ‘brushwood’
Notes: {1} Plurale tantum. {2} < Alb. *grãnd-th with the diminutive suffix -th. The ‘hardening’ of the anlaut is due to dissimilation.

krim(b) {1} [m] (tg) ‘worm, maggot, caterpillar’
PAlb. *krim(i)-
Alb. kërmi [f/m] (tg) {2} ‘wood worm’; kërmi(ll) [m] (tg) ‘maggot’ (AE 225)
PIE *kwr̥mi- ‘worm’ (Pok. 649)
Lith. kirmìs ‘maggot’
Notes: {1} Pl. kërmij. {2} < Alb. *krimí-. Mostly plurale tantum.

ku [adv] (tg) {1} ‘where’
PAlb. *ku-
Alb. kũn(d) ‘somewhere’ [adv] {2} (AE 226)
PIE *kwu- ‘how, where, when’ (Pok. 647)
Skt. kū́ ‘where?’; AV. ‘where?’
Notes: {1} Also adverb of place and conjunction. {2} < *kwuN-to-.

kur [adv] (tg) {1} ‘when’
PAlb. *kur-
Alb. kurrë [adv] (tg) ‘never’ {2} (AE 227)
PIE *kwu-r ‘where, when’ (Pok. 647)
Lith. kur̃ ‘where’
Notes: {1} Also adverb of time and conjunction. {2} Old compound of kur-ne/o-.

kush [pron] (tg) {2} ‘who’
PAlb. *ku-śa? {1} < QIE *kwu ̊
Alb. qysh [pron] {3} (tg) ‘what(?)’ (AE 228)
PIE *kwu- ‘how, when, where’ (Pok. 647)
ToB kuse ‘who’
Notes: {1} A compound of two pronominal elements, possibly from kwu-sm. {3} Indefinite, interrogative and relative pronoun. {4} Indefinite and relative pronoun.

lag [m] (g) ‘troop, band’
PAlb. *lag- < QIE *logh-o-
Alb. lagje [fns/p] (tg) {1} ‘ward, quarter, large number, part’ (AE 230)
PIE *legh- ‘to lay, lie (down)’ (Pok. 668)
Gr. λόχος ambush, ambuscade, armed band
Notes: {1} Singularized plural form.

lak {1} [m] (tg) ‘chain-trap for wild animals, noose, slip, knot’
PAlb. *lak-
Alb. lakth [m] (tg) {2} ‘mesh, knot, Adam’s apple, Cartilago thyroidea’; lajthi [f] (tg) ‘witch-hazel’ {3} (AE 231)
PIE *lh2k- ‘twisted, twig, sprig (as loop)’ _−_ (Pok. 673)
Lat. lax ‘bait, lure, noose, slip’; laqueus ‘cord, rope (as noose, slip)’
Notes: {1} Pl. leqe < Alb. *laki̅̆. {2} -th enlargement. {3} Enlargement of Alb. *lakϑ with the collective suffix -í.

lapë {1} [f] (tg) ‘dewlap, paunch, rash’
PAlb. *lap-
Alb. llapë [f] (tg) {2} ‘tongue, lap of the ear’; labë [f] (g) ‘φλοιός, cortex’ {3}; lapër [f] (t) {4} ‘dewlap, peritoneum’ (AE 233)
PIE *? ‘bark, skin, flay’ _−_ (Pok. 678)
Gr. λοπός ‘peel, cortex, skin’
Notes: {1} Pl. lapra, (t), lapna (g). {2} With expressive anlaut. {3} With unclear, voiced inlaut. {4} Singularized plural form.

latë [f] (tg) ‘kind of hatchet, axe, chopper’
PAlb. *lapta̅ < QIE *lh2p-to-
Alb. latoj [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to carve, whittle, grave (on wood)’ (AE 234)
PIE *leh2p- ‘to be flat, even; shovel?’ (Pok. 679)
Lith. lopetà ‘shovel’; OPr. lopto ‘spade’
Notes: {1} Alb. form in -o-.

ledh [m] (tg) ‘loam, clay, river-sand/bank, mass of earth’
PAlb. *(a)laiδ- < QIE *h2loid- (AE 235)
PIE *h2lei- ‘slimy, to slip’ (Pok. 662)
OPr. laydis ‘loam, clay’

lerë [f] (g) ‘rock-slip, boulder’
PAlb. *leura̅ {2} (AE 237)
PIE *leh1u- ‘stone’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 683)
Gr. (Hom.) λα̃ας ‘stone’
OIr. líe ‘stone’
Notes: {1} Etymologically uncertain. {2} A rebuilt form after the fem. stems in -eh2.

lesh {1} [n/m] {2} (tg) ‘wool, hair, fleece’
PAlb. *(u)laś- < QIE *Hul̥h1-s- (AE 238)
PIE *Huelh1- ‘wool’ (Pok. 1139)
Lat. vellus ‘wool, fleece, skin’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel. {2} Mostly singulare tantum.

lëkurë {2} [f] (tg) ‘skin, hide, fell, leather, rind’
PAlb. * ̊kura̅ {1} < QIE *kh1u-ro- (AE 240)
PIE *(s)keuh1- ‘to cover (over), wrap (up)’ (Pok. 951)
Gr. σκύλος ‘fell, pell, rind’ {3}
Notes: {1} Secundarily entered the declension of the fem. -eh2-stems. {2} With prefix l(ë)-. {3} A parallel formation.

lëmë / lãmë [m/f] {2} ‘threshing-floor, threshing’
PAlb. *(a)lo̅u-m- {1} (AE 241) ‘(threshing-, malting-)floor’ _?_
Gr. ἀλωή ‘(threshing-)floor’
ON lófi ‘(threshing-)floor’
Notes: {1} Enlargement in -mo- or -mn/men-. {2} From Alb. *le(u)m-.

(i) lig [adj] (tg) ‘bad, worse, ill’
PAlb. *alig- (AE 243)
PIE *h3lig-o- ‘indigent, needy, ill’ (Pok. 667)
Gr. ὀλίγος ‘small, little’
Lith. ligas ‘ill, worse’; ligà ‘illness’; Latv. liga ‘epidemic disease’

lopë [f] (tg) ‘cow’
PAlb. *la̅pa̅ (AE 245)
PIE *leh2p-? ‘large cattle’ _−_ (Pok. 654)
Latv. luõps ‘cattle’

lug {1} [m] (tg) ‘trough, water-channel, spillway’
PAlb. *lug(a̅)
Alb. lugë [f] (tg) {2} ‘spoon’ (AE 245)
PIE *(s)leuK- ‘to gulp/drink (down), swallow’ (Pok. 964)
OIc. slok ‘trough, spillway’; MHG slūch ‘gulf, abyss’
Notes: {1} Pl. lugje. {2} May also be connected with OCS lъžica ‘spoon’.

(i) lumë [adj] (tg) ‘beatus, felix, sanctus’
PAlb. *lubn- < QIE *lubh-no- (AE 247)
PIE *leubh- ‘to like/wish (sth), desire, request’ (Pok. 683)
Lat. lubens ‘willing, (be) fond of smth.’

lëng / lãng [m] ‘liquid, juice, sap’
PAlb. *(u)la-n-g- {1} < QIE *ul̥Hg-(no-) (AE 248)
PIE *uelHg- ‘wet, moist’ (Pok. 1145)
Russ. vológa ‘liquid’
Notes: {1} With metathesis.

lym [m] (g) ‘mud (of the river), loam, clay, blemish’
PAlb. *lū̆m- < QIE *l(H)u(H)-mo-
Alb. llum [m] (t) {1} ‘loam, clay, dregs’ (AE 248)
PIE *leu(H)- ‘to spoil’ (Pok. 681)
Gr. λυ̃μα ‘dirt, filth, blemish’
Notes: {1} With expressive anlaut, which in its turn has caused the velarization of the following vowel.

lucë {1} [f] (tg); llucë {2} [f] (tg) ‘mud, mire, sludge’
PAlb. *lū̆t ̊ < QIE *l(H)u(H)-to- (AE 248)
PIE *leuH- ‘to spoil’ (Pok. 681)
Lat. lutum ‘dirt, excrements’
Notes: {1} A suffixed form Alb. *lut-së. {2} With expressive ‘hardening’ of the initial.

llërë / llãnë [f] {1} ‘fore-arm’
PAlb. *o̅lena̅ {2} (AE 249)
PIE *o̅̆l-e̅̆n- ‘elbow’ (Pok. 307)
Gr. ὠλένη ‘elbow, fore-arm’
Lat. ulna ‘funny-bone, elbow’
Notes: {1} From *V̄lana̅̆ with lowering of the internal vowel as a consequence of the velarization of the intervocalic -l-. {2} [MdV] It seems safer to assume a PAlb. form with a short initial vowel, *alenā.

madh [m] (g) ‘porridge of corn flour, prepared with boiling cream or cheese’
PAlb. *maϑ-
Alb. mazë [f] (g) {1} ‘porridge of corn flour, prepared with boiling cream or cheese’ (AE 250)
PIE *mh2sd-, məsd-? ‘fat, feed, fodder?’ (Pok. 695)
Skt. médas- ‘fat’; OHG. mast ‘fodder, feeding, fattening’
Notes: {1} With Alb. enlargement -(ë)z(ë).

(i) madh [adj] (tg) ‘big’
PAlb. *maδ- (AE 250)
PIE *məǵ(e)h2- ‘big’ (Pok. 708)
Skt. mah- ‘big’

katër [num] (tg) ‘four’
PAlb. *katu(V)r < QIE *kwətu(o̅̆)r(-)
Alb. (i) katërt [num ord] (tg) ‘fourth’ (AE 251)
PIE *kwetuer- ‘four’ (Pok. 642)
Lat. quattuor ‘four’
Notes: {1} [MdV] In view of the difficulties involved in explaining the a in the first syllable and also in the second syllable, one might prefer to derive katër from Latin quattuor , VLat. quattor.

mal [m] (tg) ‘mountain, rock-formation, mountain-wood’
PAlb. *mall-
Alb. majë / maje [f] ‘peak, summit, top, tip, brim, elevated place’ {2} (AE 254)
PIE *molH-(i-) ‘elevated, raised place’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 722)
Rom. mal ‘shore, side (of the river)’; Latv. mala ‘shore, side (of the river)’
Notes: {1} Possibly, a non-IE word. {2} < PAlb. *maliia̅ (< *m(o)lH-ieh2).

makë [f] {2} (tg) ‘skin (on liquids)’
PAlb. *maka̅ {1}
Alb. makra [fnp] {3} (t) ‘phlegm, mucus (in the period of pregnancy)’; makë [f] (t) ‘sputum, placenta’; mãgë [f] (g) {4} ‘mucus (in the period of pregnancy), placenta’ (AE 253)
PIE *mh2ek-, mok-? ‘wet, moist’ (Pok. 698)
OCS mokrъ ‘wet, moist’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem -eh2-stems. {2} Singulare tantum. {3} Plurale tantum. {4} With secondary nasalization.

mã(n)g {2} [m] (g) {3} ‘hinnulus’
PAlb. *magu-
Alb. makth [m] (tg) ‘{4} leveret, young cony/rabbit, nightmare’; meksh [m] (g) {5} ‘bull-calf’ (AE 254)
PIE *mh2ghu- ‘young animal, cub, youngster’ _?_ {1} (Pok. 696)
Go. magus ‘boy, lad’; OIr. macc ‘son’
Notes: {1} Probably, a non-IE word. {2} With secondary nasalization. {3}Buz. {4} Enlargement in -th: Alb. *mag-θ. {5} Alb. form with the suffix -sh.

mardhë [f] (tg) ‘frost, freeze’
PAlb. *marδ < QIE *morǵ(h)-
Alb. mardh [verb] (tg) ‘to freeze, be feeling cold’ (AE 256)
PIE *merǵ(h)- ‘to rot, decay?’ (Pok. 740)
OCS mrazъ ‘frost, freeze’

mazë [f] (tg) ‘cream (cheese), quantity’
PAlb. *mad(i)a̅ < QIE *mh2ǵ-(i)ieh2 (AE 258)
PIE *meh2ǵ- ‘to knead, stroke’ (Pok. 696)
Gr. μαγίς ‘kneaded mass/substance’
Russ. maz’ ‘salve, ointment’

shtat {1} [m] (tg) ‘structure of the body, figure’
PAlb. *śtat- {3} < QIE *sth2-ti/o-
Alb. mbështes [verb] (tg) ‘to lean, rest, stand, back up, base’ {2} (AE 260)
PIE *steh2- ‘to stay, stand, put, lay’ (Pok. 1006)
Lat. status standing, stand
Russ. stat’ ‘structure of the body’
Notes: {1} Pl. shtet with umlaut of the root vowel. {2} Old denominative < * ̥śtat́- ( < *sth2t-io-). {3}[MdV] To my mind, shtat is rather a borrowing from Latin status.

mbi {1} [prep] (tg) ‘on, upon, over’
PAlb. * ̊(V)pi (AE 260)
PIE *h1(e)pi, h1opi ‘up, on, upon (on-to, un-to)’ (Pok. 323)
Gr. ἐπί ‘on, to, towards’
Notes: {1} Compound of *h2en-h1(e/o)pi.

më {1} [prep] (tg) ‘(a)round, at, by’
PAlb. *ambi (AE 261)
PIE *h2mbi ‘(a)round’ (Pok. 34)
Lat. amb(i)-, am- ‘(a)round’
Skt. abhí ‘(a)round’
Notes: {1} From Alb. mbə, which is attested in the older Gheg literature (Buz.) and still in Tosk dialects as mbë.

mëlle(n)jë {3} [f] (tg); mulle(n)jë [f] (tg) ‘blackbird’
PAlb. *(V)me̅l ̊ {2} (AE 264)
PIE *h2(e)mes(e)l- {1} ‘blackbird’ (Pok. 35)
Lat. merula ‘blackbird’
OHG amsla ‘blackbird’
Notes: {1} If not a European word. {2} from a preform (V)mesl ̥. {3} Enlargement with the suffix -enjë.

mëmë [f] (t); mãmë [f] (g) ‘mother’
PAlb. *ma(m)ma̅ (AE 265)
PIE *ma̅̆(m)ma̅, meh2-(m)meh2 {1} ‘mother’ (Pok. 694)
Gr. μάμμη ‘mother’
Lat. mamma ‘mother’
Notes: {1} Nursery word.

mi [m] (tg) ‘mouse’
PAlb. *mū- (AE 267)
PIE *muHs-, root *muHs ‘mouse’ _+_ (Pok. 752)
Gr. μυ̃ς ‘mouse’
Lat. mūs ‘mouse’
Skt. mū́ṣ- ‘mouse’

miell, mjell [m/n] (tg) ‘flour’
PAlb. *melu- (AE 268)
PIE *melh1-u- ‘meal, flour’ (Pok. 716)
OHG melo ‘meal, flour’

mirë [adv] (tg); (i) mirë [adj] (tg) ‘well, good’
PAlb. *mi̅̆r- < QIE *m(H)i(H)-ro- (AE 268)
PIE *meiH- ‘mild, soft’ (Pok. 711)
Lat. mi̅rus ‘wonderful’

mizë [f] (tg) ‘fly’
PAlb. *mū- (AE 270)
PIE *? ‘fly, whim, caprice’ (Pok. 752)
Gr. μυι̃α ‘fly’
ON mý ‘whim’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -zë.

mjergull(ë) {1} [f] (tg) ‘nebula’
PAlb. *mergula̅ (AE 271)
PIE *mer(H)gw- ‘to flicker, glimmer, gleam’ (Pok. 734)
ON myrkr ‘dark’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -ullë.

mish [m/n] (tg) ‘meat’
PAlb. *me̅mśá- (AE 269)
PIE *me̅mso- ‘meat’ (Pok. 725)
Skt. ma̅ṃsám ‘meat’; Go. mimz ‘meat’

mjaltë [n/m] (tg) ‘honey’
PAlb. *mel(i)ta- {1}, cf. bletë (AE 270)
PIE *meli-t(-) ‘honey’ (Pok. 723)
Gr. μέλι ‘honey’
Hitt. milit ‘honey’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the neuter -o-stems.

njeg [m] (g) ‘hazy weather, misty’
PAlb. *(n)neG- {1}
Alb. njegull(ë) [m] (tg) ‘nūbe̅s, ca̅li̅go’ (AE 272)
PIE *? _−_
Rom. negură ‘fog’
Notes: {1} May be connected with the root negw- ‘to get dark’ or (s)neuK-, cf. Lith. niáuka ‘darkness (of the sky), dusky, dim (weather)’.

mjekër, mjek(ë)rë [f] (tg) ‘chin, beard’
PAlb. *(m)mekri (AE 273)
PIE *smeḱ-r̥ ‘chin’ (Pok. 968)
Lith. smãkras chin; Skt. śmáśru- ‘beard, moustache’

(i) mjerë [adj] (tg) {2} ‘miserable, woeful, unhappy’
PAlb. *m(i)ier- (AE 274) ‘blotted, spotted, stained?’ _−_ (Pok. 697 {1})
Gr. μιερός, μιαρός ‘polluted, defiled’
Notes: {1} Root mai-. {2} Also as an exclamatory particle.

(ndër)mjet [prep, adv] (tg) ‘between, among, amid’
PAlb. *met-
Alb. me [prep] (tg) ‘with’; mje [prep] (g) ‘(un)till’; mjet [m] (g) ‘wall separating’ (AE 275)
PIE *me-t- ‘with, in the midst/middle of, between’ (Pok. 702)
Gr. μέτα, μετά ‘in the midst/middle of, between, behind’

mes [m] (tg); mjes/z [m] (g) ‘middle, mid’
PAlb. *meTi, meTi- < QIE *meTi(-), meTi-o-
Alb. midis [prep, adv] (tg) ‘between, in the middle of’ (AE 274)
PIE *me-t/dhi ‘with, middle’ (Pok. 702)
Go. miÞ ‘with’
Notes: {1} The derivation of PIE forms is not convincing. One may alternatively derive mjez- from Latin medius (cf. gaz < gaudium). Alb. mes has been explained as a borrowing from Modern Greek mésos; it might also represent a devoiced variant of mez.

mo [particle] {1} (tg) ‘do not!’
PAlb. *me̅
Alb. mos [particle] {2} (tg) ‘don’t (you)?, not!’ (AE 275)
PIE *meh1 ‘not’ (Pok. 703)
Gr. μή ‘not, no’
Skt. ma̅́ ‘not, no’
Notes: {1} Prohibitive particle. {2} Dubitative; with an adverb expressing fear or doubt < *meh1 kwe.

modhë [f] (tg) ‘brome, darnel, lentil, bean, pea(s), wetch {2}’
PAlb. *me̅/a̅δ
Alb. modhull(ë) [f] (tg) {3} ‘brome, darnel, lentil, bean, pea(s), wetch’ (AE 276) _−_ {1} (Pok. 695)
Skt. ma̅́ṣa- ‘bean’; MP ma̅s ‘wetch, legume’; Rom. mazăre ‘lentil’
Notes: {1} ‘Wanderwort’. {2} Depending on the dialect. {3} Enlargement with -ullë.

morr {1} [m] (tg) ‘louse’
PAlb. *me̅r(e)n- < QIE *mers-en
Alb. morriz, murriz [m] (tg) ‘Christ’s thorn’ (AE 277)
PIE *mer-s- ‘to rub (sore)’ (Pok. 739)
MoHG morsch ‘decayed, pulpy’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement in -(ë)z(ë).

mot [m] (tg) ‘period of time (of a year), year, weather’
PAlb. *me̅t- (AE 278)
PIE *meh1-t(i/o)- ‘mass, time, year’ (Pok. 703)
Lith. mẽtas ‘year, time, mass’

mot(ë)rë, motër [f] (tg) ‘sister’
PAlb. *ma̅tri (AE 279)
PIE *meh2-tr̥ ‘mother’ (Pok. 700)
Gr. μήτηρ ‘mother’
Skt. ma̅tár- ‘mother’
Notes: In order to explain the semantic shift from ‘mother’ to ‘sister’, Hamp (1986) assumes that the original Indo-European word *suesor ‘sister’ is reflected in Alb. vajzë. Alb. motrë would be an abbrevation of the expression *ma̅tra̅ *uor- ‘mother’s girl’, which came to be used to denote the ‘sister’. Lit.: Eric P. Hamp, ‘Alb. vajzë, motrë’ , in: Studi Albanologici (etc.) in onore di Giuseppe Valentini, Firenze 1986, p. 109-110.

meje [pronpers Abls] (tg) ‘from me’
më [DatAcc] {1} (tg); mua / mu(e) [DatAcc] {2}
PAlb. *me̅̆- (AE 279)
PIE *me- ‘me’ (Pok. 702)
Notes: {1} Proclitic form of the Acc-Dat. 1sg. personal pronoun. {2} < Alb. *moN.

muaj / mu(e)j [m] {1} ‘month’
PAlb. *me̅n- (AE 279)
PIE *meh1n-s ‘time, mass, month’ (Pok. 703)
Lat. me̅nsis ‘month’
Notes: {1}Buz. muoj [m] (g).

m(u)llezë {2} [f] (tg) ‘hop-hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia’
PAlb. *mel ̊ {1}
Alb. mëllak [m] (t) ‘Quercus conferta’ {3} (AE 280)
PIE *mel(H)- ‘dark(-coloured), swarthy?’ (Pok. 720)
Gr. μέλαν- ‘black’
Notes: {1} Nominal basis for further Alb. formations. {2} Formation with -(é)zë. {3} Formation with -ák.

s ̊, ̊s [particle] (tg) ‘not’
PAlb. *te (AE 276)
PIE *kwe ‘and’ (Pok. 635)
Skt. ca ‘and’; Go. (ni)h ‘and (not)’

natë {2} [f] (tg) ‘night’
PAlb. *nakta̅ {1} (AE 283)
PIE *nokw-t- ‘night’ (Pok. 762)
Lat. nox ‘night’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. -eh2-stems. {2} Pl. net is possibly the reflex of the du. nokwt-ih1.

tërë / tãnë [pronindef] ‘all, full’
PAlb. *tan- {2} < QIE *tons {1}
Alb. (i) tërë / (i) tãnë [adj] ‘all’ (AE 189)
PIE *to(d) ‘it’ (Pok. 1096)
Gr. τόν ‘it’
Notes: {1} {2} corr sic < to-(V)no- ??

ndër [prep] {1} (tg) ‘between, under, to, by’
PAlb. *enter (AE 287)
PIE *h1(e)nter ‘in, between’ (Pok. 313)
Lat. enter ‘between’
Notes: {1} Also used as a prefix. {2} [MdV] I do not see how one can exclude a borrowing from Latin inter.

(n)djerë, (n)gjer {1} [prep] (tg) ‘until, at, near(ly)’
PAlb. *a/N(e)dri
Alb. mjerth(i) [prep] (g) {2} ‘until’ (AE 288)
PIE *m(e)-ǵhri ‘at, till, to’ (Pok. 702)
Gr. μέχρι(ς), ἄχρι(ς) ‘until’
Arm. merj ‘at, by’
Notes: {1} From Alb. *(N)der-. {2} Enlargement with -th(i).

na [pronpers NomAccDat] (tg) {1} ‘we, us’
ne(ve) [NomAccDat] (tg) {2}; nesh [Abl] (tg) {3}
PAlb. *na-, no̅- (AE 291)
PIE *no̅̆s ‘us’ _+_ (Pok. 758)
Lat. no̅s ‘we’
Skt. nas ‘we’
Notes: {1} In the obl. cases, it only occurs as a proclitic. {2} neve contains an enlargement -ve- from the nominal system. {3} With -sh-enlargement from the nominal system.

nes {1} [adv] (t) ‘after, next after’
PAlb. *(e)no̅ ̊
Alb. nesër [adv] (tg) ‘tomorrow’ (AE 292)
PIE *(h1)ne̅̆-, (h1)no̅̆- ‘after, behind, next to/after’ _?_ (Pok. 40)
Gr. ἔνη(ς), ἔνας ‘the day after tomorrow’
Go. nehʷ ‘after’
Notes: {1} A compound ne-s < *no̅ kwe.

nëmë / nãmë [f/m] ‘curse, imprecation, misdeed’
PAlb. *nam- < QIE *nom-o- (AE 293)
PIE *nem- ‘to apportion, assign’ (Pok. 763)
Gr. νόμος usage, use, law

nënë / nãnë [f] ‘mother’
PAlb. *na(n)na̅ (AE 294)
PIE *na̅̆(n)na̅̆ {1} ‘mother’ _−_
Gr. νέννος ‘mother’
Skt. nana̅́ ‘mother’
Notes: {1} Nursery word.

nëntë / nãntë [num] {1} ‘nine’
PAlb. *(e)neun(-ta̅̆)
Alb. (i) nëntë / (i) nãntë [num ord] ‘ninth’ (AE 294)
PIE *h1neun ‘nine’ _+_ (Pok. 318)
OCS devętь ‘nine’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -të under the influence of the respective ordinal and of the cardinal dhjetë ‘ten’.

gat(i) [adv] (tg) ‘ready (to leave/go/begin smth.), nearly’
PAlb. *gat- < QIE *gwm̥-t(o/i)-
Alb. ngas [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to put/set in motion, drift’ (AE 296)
PIE *gwem- ‘to go’ (Pok. 463)
Skt. gáti- ‘going, course’
Notes: {1} Albanian denominative formation from * ̥gati- < *gwṃt-io-).

(i) ngjelmë {1} [adj] (g) ‘salty, savory’
PAlb. * ̊śali(m)- < QIE *sh2eli(mo)-
Alb. gjellë [f] (tg) ‘dish’ (AE 298)
PIE *seh2l-(i-) ‘salt’ (Pok. 878)
Gr. ἅλιμος ‘of the sea, sea’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with the prefix (a)n-. The root vowel points to umlaut, caused by -i- of the following syllable.

nip [m] (tg) ‘grandson, -child, nephew’
PAlb. *nepo̅
Alb. mbesë [m] (tg) ‘granddaughter, niece’ {1} {2} (AE 301)
PIE *nepo̅t ‘grandson, nephew’ (Pok. 764)
Lat. nepo̅s grandson
Skt. nápat- ‘grandson’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. *nepo̅t(i)a̅. {2} [MdV] Or borrowed from VLat. nepōtia, cf. Rum. nepoat,ă, as has been proposed by others.

njer(i) [m {1}] (tg) ‘human being’
PAlb. *(a)ner- (AE 304)
PIE *h2ne̅̆r- ‘man’ (Pok. 765)
Skt. nár- ‘man, human being’
Notes: {1} Pl. njerëz; the form of the singular is also used as indefinite pronoun ‘someone, whoever’.

(i) njomë [adj] (tg) ‘soft, tender, fresh’
PAlb. *kne̅m-
Alb. njom [verb] (tg) ‘to wet, soak, moisten’ (AE 306)
PIE *kne̅̆s-(m-) ‘to scratch, scrape, rub?’ (Pok. 561)
Go. hnasqus ‘soft, delicate’; OE hnesce ‘tender, weak’

pa {2} [particle] (tg) ‘thus, then, so’
PAlb. *apa
Alb. pa [particle] (tg) ‘without, having no’ {1}; prapë [adv] (tg) ‘again, back, anew, afresh’ (AE 307)
PIE *h2(e)po- ‘off, away’ (Pok. 53)
Gr. ἄπα, ἀπά ‘away, off’
Skt. ápa ‘away, off’
Notes: {1} pa [pa:] in the oldest Alb. literature and in dialects. Must be regarded as a combination of two contiguous particles: PAlb. *apa au-. {2} Combination of two contiguous particles: Alb. *pər apə.

palë [f] (tg) ‘fold, stratum’
PAlb. *palla̅ < QIE *pol-io- (AE 308)
PIE *pel- ‘to fold’ (Pok. 803)
Rom. pală ‘fold’; Go. falÞan ‘fold’

parë [adv, prep] (tg) ‘before(hand), first, previously’
PAlb. *par-
Alb. para [adv, prep] (tg) ‘forward, ahead’ {1} (AE 310)
PIE *pr̥H-e/o-s ‘before, in front’ (Pok. 813)
Gr. πάρος ‘earlier, forward’
Skt. purás ‘forward, ahead, in front’
Notes: {1} Back formation from përpara < Alb. *pər-parə-a.

(i) parë [num ord] (tg) ‘first’
PAlb. *paru- {1} (AE 311)
PIE *prh2-u- ‘first’ (Pok. 815)
Skt. pū́rva- ‘former, front’; OCS prьvъ ‘first’
Notes: {1} Arose in the weak cases.

pas {1} [prep, adv] {2} (tg) ‘behind, after’
PAlb. *pa ̊ (AE 311)
PIE *pos(t) ‘directly to/at/after, after’ (Pok. 841)
Gr. πό(ς) ‘at, to, by’
OCS po ‘behind, after’
Notes: {1} Combination of two contiguous particles: *pos(t) + kwe. {2} Frequently occurs as a prefix.

pelë [f] (tg) ‘mare’
PAlb. *po̅lla̅ < QIE *po̅l(H)-ieh2, pl̥H-(i)ieh2? (AE 314)
PIE *pel(H)- ‘to set in motion by thrusting or beating, to drive’ _?_ (Pok. 801)
Gr. πω̃λος ‘foal, filly’

pendë / pẽndë [f] ‘pair, span (of oxen)’
PAlb. *penda̅ {1} (AE 314)
PIE *(s)pen-(d-) ‘to draw, stretch’ (Pok. 988)
Lith. pántis ‘fetter, shackle’
Notes: {1} Old deverbative formation.

pesë / pẽsë [num] ‘five’
PAlb. *pent(e)
Alb. (i) pestë / (i) pẽstë [num ord] (g) ‘fifth’ (AE 315)
PIE *penkwe ‘five’ (Pok. 808)
Gr. πέντε ‘five’
Lat. quinque ‘five’

petk {1} [m] (tg) ‘gown, garment, dress, suit’
PAlb. *po/ait- (AE 316) ‘gown, cloak’ _−_ (Pok. 92 {1})
Go. paida ‘tunica, shirt’
Notes: {1} Original form *b/paita̅. {2} Enlargement with the suffix -kë.

për {1} [prep] (tg) ‘for, in, within, by, to’
PAlb. *per(i) (AE 316)
PIE *per(i) ‘leading (out) across’ (Pok. 810)
Lat. per ‘through, over’
Skt. parí ‘(a)round’
Notes: {1} Occurs frequently as a prefix. {2} [MdV] Borrowings from Latin with per- and prō- have joined the inherited prefix.

për(r)ua / përru(e) [m] {3} ‘torrent, stream’
PAlb. *pVre̅/a̅n- (AE 318) ‘torrent, stream’ _−_ {1} (Pok. 329 {2})
Rom. pîrîu {4} ‘torrent, stream’
Notes: {1} Balkan word? {2} To the root er- ’to start moving’. {3} < *pVroN. {4} Assimilated to rîu ’river’ < Lat. ri̅vus

pidh {2} [f] (tg) ‘pudenda’
PAlb. *piϑ- (AE 319)
PIE *pisd- {1} ‘pudenda’ (Pok. 831)
Lith. pyzdà ‘pudenda’; Russ. pizda ‘pudenda’
Notes: {1} According to Hamp, pi-s(e)d-. {2} With tabooistic voiced auslaut.

pishë [f] (tg) ‘pine(-tree), pine-wood’
PAlb. *pi̅̆(?)ś- {2} (AE 321)
PIE *p(H)i(H)-C- ‘resine tree?’ _?_ (Pok. 793 {1})
Lat. pi̅num ‘fir, pine(-tree)’; picea ‘fir, pitch-pine’
Notes: {1} Root pei(H)- ’to be fat’ if IE. {2} Original collective formation with -s(i)o-.

pjalm [m] (tg) ‘pollen’
PAlb. *pelm- {1} < QIE *pel(H)-mo- (AE 323)
PIE *pel(H)- ‘to push’ (Pok. 801)
Notes: {1} [MdV] It is assumed that pjalm derives from the root of pjell ’ to beget, procreate’.

plak {1} {4} [m {2}] (tg) ‘old man’
PAlb. *plak- < QIE *pl̥H-k-
Alb. plakë [f] (tg) {3} ‘old woman’ (AE 324)
PIE *pelh2- ‘grey, ashy’ (Pok. 804)
Lith. pìlkas ‘grey’
Notes: {1} Pl. pleq from Alb. *plaki̅̆. {2} Often occurs as an adjective, meaning ‘oldish, aged’. {3} Fem. Alb. *plak-a̅̆.

plesht [m] (tg) ‘flea’
PAlb. *plauś(i)-t- (AE 325)
PIE *plou-s(i)- ‘flea’ (Pok. 102)
Arm. low ‘flea’
Skt. plúṣi- ‘flea’

plis [m] (tg) ‘clod (of earth), lump’
PAlb. *plit(i)- < QIE *pl̥t-io- (AE 326)
PIE *(s)pel-(t-) ‘to sliver, split off, splinter off’ (Pok. 985)

plot [adv] (tg) ‘full, replete’
PAlb. *ple̅t- < QIE *pleh1-t-
Alb. (i) plotë [adj] (tg) ‘full, whole, entire’ (AE 327)
PIE *pelh1- ‘to fill (up)’ (Pok. 799)
Lat. imple̅tus ‘filled’

popël [f] (tg) ‘clod, boulder, rock, stone’
PAlb. *pe̅pli < QIE *pe̅(l)-pl̥ {1} (AE 329)
PIE *(s)pel- ‘to sliver, split off, splinter off’ (Pok. 327)
Gr. (Hes.) πέλλα . λίθος
OHG felis ‘rock’
Notes: {1} If IE, this is an Alb. formation with (broken) reduplication.

prush [m {1}] (tg) ‘embers’
PAlb. *pruś- < QIE *prus- (AE 334)
PIE *preus- ‘to burn (up)?’ (Pok. 846)
Lat. prūna ‘embers’
Notes: {1} Singulare tantum.

pupë [f] (tg) ‘bud, button, bunch of grapes, tassel’
PAlb. *pupa̅ (AE 336)
PIE *pu-p- ‘to puff (out/up), swell?’ _?_ (Pok. 848)
Lat. puppa ‘nipple, teat’
Latv. pupa ‘bean’

re / rẽ [fns/p] ‘cloud, haze, mist’
PAlb. *(e)reN- < QIE *h1regw(s)-no-(e)reN-
Alb. erret [verb 3spr] (tg) {1} ‘to grow dark, darken’ (AE 344)
PIE *h1regw-(es-) ‘dark’ _?_ (Pok. 857)
Gr. ἔρεβος ‘darkness (of the underworld)’; ἐρεμνός ‘dark’
Notes: {1} Denominative formation.

rrap(ë) {2} [nsm/f] (tg); rrepë {3} [f] (tg) ‘radish, rape’
PAlb. *rap- (AE 349)
PIE *r(e)Hp-, ra̅̆p- {1} ‘radish, rape’ (Pok. 852)
Gr. ῥάπυς ‘cabbage, radish’
Notes: {1} Non-IE ‘Wanderwort’. {2} Bar. and the dialects of Southern Italy. {3} From pl. rapi̅̆.

rrap {1} [m] (tg) ‘plane-tree’
PAlb. *rap- < QIE *rh1p-, rap- (AE 349)
PIE *r(e)h1p-? ‘pale, pole?’ _−_ (Pok. 866)
OCS rěpьjeτρίβολος
Notes: {1} Pl. rrep(e) from Alb. *rrapi̅̆.

rrënjë / rrã(n)jë [f] ‘root’
PAlb. *radnia̅ < QIE *urh2d-(nieh2) (AE 350)
PIE *u(e)r(e)h2d- ‘root’ (Pok. 1167)
Lat. ra̅di̅x root

se [conj, pron] {1} (tg) ‘that, as, when’
PAlb. *te(i), ti
Alb. si [conj, pron] {2} (tg) ‘how (?)’; sa [conj, pron] (tg) ‘how many, much (?), as (...) as’ {3} (AE 353)
PIE *kwe-, kw(e)i- ‘how, what’ (Pok. 644)
Notes: {1} Interrog. and rel. pronoun, esp. in connection with a prep. {2} Interrog. and rel. pronoun, esp. in connection with a prep. From instr. kwi-h1. {3} From Alb. *si-a, a combination of two pronominal members, viz. *kwih2 and *h2eu-/h2en-.

sorrë [f] (tg) ‘crow’
PAlb. *te̅r(e)na̅ < QIE *kwers-en- (AE 355)
PIE *kwers- ‘black, dark(-coloured)’ (Pok. 583)
Skt. kr̥ṣṇá- ‘black’

cup {1} [m] (tg); sup [m] (tg) ‘shoulder’
PAlb. * ̊tśup- (AE 355)
PIE *(s)ḱup- ‘shoulder’ (Pok. 627)
Skt. śúpti- ‘shoulder’; MNG schuft {2} ‘shoulder’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix T(V)-. {2} From Germ. skuftu- with s-.

sy [mns/p] (tg) ‘eye’
PAlb. *tui̅ < QIE *h3(e)kw-ih1 {1}
Alb. sy(e)j [verb] (g) ‘to look at, attack, assail’ {2} (AE 356)
PIE *h3(o)kw- ‘to see’ (Pok. 775)
Lith. akì ‘both eyes’
Notes: {1} Original dual form. {2} Denominative formation.

shat(ë) {1} [m/f] (tg) ‘heart-shaped hoe, mattock’
PAlb. *śakta̅ < QIE *sək-to/i- (AE 358)
PIE *se̅̆k- ‘to cut’ (Pok. 895)
Lat. se̅cula ‘sickle’; sacena ‘pick-axe of the pontifices’
Notes: {1} Pl. shet(-) from Alb. *šati̅̆.

shi [m] {1} (tg) ‘rain’
PAlb. *śū- < QIE *s(H)u(H)- (AE 360)
PIE *seuH- ‘juice, moisture?’ (Pok. 912)
Gr. ὕει ‘to rain’; ὕω ‘to rain’
Notes: {1} Singulare tantum.

shkorre(t) {1} [f/m] (tg) ‘bush, shrub’
PAlb. * ̊ke̅r-
Alb. shkozë [f] (tg) ‘{2} woodrush, hornbeam, Carpinus betulus’ (AE 362)
PIE *(s)Ker(H)- ‘?’ _?_ (Pok. 938)
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement with -et of the Alb. basis *škor- {2} From Alb. škor-zə.

shpardh(ë) [m/f] (tg) ‘kind of oak, Quercus conferta’
PAlb. *śpar-(δ-) {1} < QIE *(s-)por- (AE 365)
PIE *(s)per- ‘spar, rafter?’ _?_ (Pok. 990)
OHG sparro ‘beam, roof-tree’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with the suffix -dh(ë).

shtatë {1} [num] (tg) ‘seven’
PAlb. *ś(e)pta(-ta̅)
Alb. (i) shtatë [num ord] (tg) ‘seventh’ (AE 370)
PIE *septḿ̥ ‘seven’ (Pok. 909)
Gr. ἑπτά ‘seven’
Skt. saptá ‘seven’
Notes: {1} Under the influence of (i) shtatë ‘seventh’ enlarged with -të.

shul [m] (tg) ‘poles, bolt, cross-bar, yoke, lath’
PAlb. *kśul(V)n-
Alb. sh(i)lor [m] (g) ‘yoke’ {1} (AE 361) _−_
Gr. ξύλον ‘timber, beam’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with the suffix -ór.

shtãnsë [f] (g {2}); shtãzë [f] (t) ‘animal, beast’
PAlb. *śtantia̅ < QIE *sth2(e)nt-(ieh2) {1}
Alb. shtëzë / shtãzë[f] ‘animal, beast’ (AE 371)
PIE *steh2- ‘to stay, stand, lay, put (on)’ (Pok. 1004)
Notes: {1} Alb. formation from the present participle. {2}Buz.

shteg [m] (tg) ‘foot-way, (foot-)path’
PAlb. *śtaig- < QIE *stoigh-o- (AE 371)
PIE *steigh- ‘to walk, stride, step’ (Pok. 1017)
Gr. στοίχος ‘line, row’

shtërpi(n)j {1} [mnp] (tg) ‘reptiles’
PAlb. *ś(t)ripeni̅̆ < QIE *sr̥p-en- (AE 374)
PIE *serp- ‘to creep, crawl’ (Pok. 912)
Notes: {1} Originally the pl. of gjarpër/n (tg) ‘snake’.

gështallë {1} [f] (tg) ‘post, stud, stem, stalk’
PAlb. *śtal- < QIE *stol-
Alb. shtall [verb] (g) ‘to wind up, coil, clew up’ (AE 376)
PIE *stel- ‘set/put (up)’ (Pok. 1019)
Gr. στολίζω ‘to get ready’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with Alb. prefix g(ë)-. {2} Formed on the model of the original causatives: *śtalei < *stol-eio/e-.

shtalb [m] (g) ‘post, stud’
PAlb. *śtelP- < QIE *stolP- (AE 376)
PIE *stel-p/b(h)- ‘post, stud?’ (Pok. 1020)
MLG stalpen ‘stagna̅re’

shtjerrë {1} [f] (tg) ‘kid, lamb’
PAlb. *śtera̅
Alb. shterunë [f] (t) ‘young cow’ (AE 376)
PIE *ster(i)- ‘soft, weaken’ (Pok. 1031)
Gr. στει̃ρα ‘barren, sterile (cow, woman)’
Skt. stari̅́- ‘barren/sterile cow’
Notes: {1} with hardening of the inlaut.

shqerrë {1} [f] (tg) ‘lamb, kid’
PAlb. *(ś-)kera̅
Alb. mëshqerrë [f] (tg) ‘heifer’ {2} (AE 376)
PIE *(s)Ker(H)- ‘to spring, leap?’ _?_ (Pok. 933)
ON skirja ‘young cow’
Notes: {1} Pl. shqerra ‘(herd of) lambs, little goats’. {2} Enlargement with më-.

shurrë {1} [f] (tg) ‘urine, piss’
PAlb. *śur-(na̅) < QIE *sHur-(neh2)śur-(na̅) (AE 380)
PIE *seHur? ‘to piss, make water’ (Pok. 80)
Gr. οὐρέω ‘to piss’
Hitt. se̅ẖur ‘urine’
Notes: {1} The hardening of the inlaut may have expressive reasons.

ni {1} [adv] (tg) ‘now’
PAlb. * (AE 381)
PIE *nū̆ ‘now’ (Pok. 770)
Lith. nù ‘now’; Skt. nū́ ‘now’
Notes: {1} Often occurs in coordination with other particles, cf. tani, nani, nime ‘id’.

tani [adv] (tg) ‘now’
PAlb. *ta ̊ {1}
Alb. tash [adv] (g) ‘now’; tash(t) [adv] (tg) ‘now’ {2}, cf. nani (AE 381)
PIE *to- ‘it’ (Pok. 1086)
Lith. tadà ‘then, thereupon’; Skt. ta-da̅́ ‘then’
Notes: {1} Particle occurring in adverbial compounds. {2} Enlargement with -(t)i.

nani [adv] (t) ‘now’
PAlb. *na ̊ {1}
Alb. nashti [adv] (t) {2} ‘now’, cf. tani (AE 381)
PIE *(h1)no̅̆- ‘after, next to/after’ _?_ (Pok. 758)
Luv. nanun ‘now’
Notes: {1} Particle occurring in adverbial compounds. {2} To be analyzed as na-sh-ti.

ter {2} [m] (tg) ‘bull’
PAlb. *taur-
Alb. tarok [m] (g) {3} ‘bullock, neat, ox’ (AE 384)
PIE *ta̅̆uro-? {1} ‘bull’ (Pok. 1083)
Gr. ταυ̃ρος ‘bull’
Lat. taurus ‘bull’
Notes: {1} Non-IE word. {2} With -a- > -e- from pl. ter- < Alb. *tari̅̆. {3} Enlargement with -ók.

tek [adv, conj] (tg) {1} ‘over there, where’
PAlb. *tai ̊ < QIE *toi-
Alb. te [prep] (tg) ‘ad, apud, prope, versus’ {2} (AE 383)
PIE *to- ‘it’ (Pok. 1086)
Notes: {1} From *te ku (< toi- kwu-) ‘there where’. Also occurs as a prep. (with Nom. determ.) with the meaning ‘ad, apud, prope, versus’. {2} Governs the nom. determ., due to its relatively recent use as a prep. and its origin as a shortened form of Alb. *te-k(u).

tetë [num] (tg) {2} ‘eight’
PAlb. *akto̅(-ta̅)
Alb. (i) tetë [num ord] (tg) ‘eighth’ {3} (AE 384)
PIE *(H)oḱteh3 {1} ‘eight’ (Pok. 775)
Gr. ὀκτώ eight:numeral
Notes: {1} Maybe *h3eḱteh3. {2} With -të-enlargement due to the influence of the respective ordinal numeral and of the other lower numerals. {3} Adjectival formation with the suffix -të < *-to-.

tëmth / tãmth [m] (g) {1} ‘bile, gall(-bladder)’
PAlb. *tam-(ϑ-) (AE 385) _−_
Lat. tama ‘kind of bumb, swelling’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -th.

ti [pronpers Nomsm/f] {2} (tg) ‘you’
PAlb. * < QIE *tuh2 (AE 386)
PIE *tu- ‘you’ (Pok. 1097)
Lat. ‘you’
Lith. tù ‘you’
Notes: {1} Further case forms: ty m/fd/a ‘(to) you’, proclitic të ‘id.’ < Alb. *tui̅̆, m/fb teje ‘from you’ < *toi- with -je-enlargement from the nominal system.

tre [num m/n] (tg) ‘three’
PAlb. *trei-
Alb. (i) tretë [num ord] (tg) ‘third’ (AE 387)
PIE *trei-es ‘three’ (Pok. 1090)
Lat. tre̅s ‘three’
Skt. tráyas ‘three’

tri {1} [num f] (tg) ‘three’
PAlb. *tri̅(-a̅) (AE 387)
PIE *tri-h2 ‘three’ (Pok. 1090)
Gr. τρία ‘three’
Lat. tria ‘three’
Notes: {1} [tri(:)] > Alb. *tri-ə, a secondary feminine.

trim [m] {1} (tg) ‘young and brave man’
PAlb. *trim- < QIE *tr̥-mo- (AE 389)
PIE *ter- ‘soft, weak, young’ (Pok. 1070)
Arm. t‘arm ‘young, fresh’
Notes: {1} Often occurs unchanged as an adjective.

trikë [f] (g) ‘twig, sprig’
PAlb. *tri/eK-(ś-)
Alb. trish(e) [f] (g) ‘sprout, (young) shoot’; tresh [m] (g) ‘sprout, (young) shoot’ {1} (AE 389) _?_
Gr. τρέχνος, τέρχνος ‘sprout, (young) shoot’
Notes: {1} May also be connected with tri, tre ‘three’

tul [m] (tg) ‘flesh, pulp, crumb’
PAlb. *tull- < QIE *t(H)ul-i/no- (AE 390)
PIE *teu(H)-(lo-) ‘to swell’ (Pok. 1080)
Gr. τύλος ‘torus, wale’
Lat. tullius ‘swell, flood, gush, jet’

thinjë [f] (tg) ‘gray hair’
PAlb. *ϑi̅nia̅ {1} < QIE *ḱih1-ni-
PIE *ḱi(e)h1- ‘dark(-coloured), grey’ (Pok. 541)
OCS sinь ‘darkblue’
Notes: {1} Remade after the class of fem. a̅-stems.

thadër [f] (g) ‘carpenter’s tool (a small double-edged tool with an axe and a chisel side)’
PAlb. *ϑat(Vr)- < QIE *ḱh3-to/t(e)r-
Alb. këthatër(r) {1} / k(ë)thadër [f] ‘claw, talons (of a bird of prey)’ {2}; gërthat [m] (g) ‘claw, talons (of a bird of prey)’ {3}; krahathadër [m] (g) ‘Accipiter nisus’ {4} (AE 391)
PIE *ḱeh3-(i-) ‘to sharpen, whet’ (Pok. 541)
Lat. catus ‘acutus, acute’
Skt. śitá- ‘whetted, sharp’
Notes: {1} Frequently kthetër with umlaut of the root vowel, which initially arose in pl. k(ë)thetra. {2} Alb. formation with k(ë)-. The interchange -t- : -d- is dialectally conditioned. {3} Pl. gërtheta, Alb. formation with gër-. {4} A compound with krah ‘arm, wing’.

thak(ë) {2} [m/n] (tg) ‘awn, beard, pin, peg, tassel, fringe’
PAlb. *ϑak- (AE 393)
PIE *ḱok(w)-(e)h2- {1} ‘bough, branch, twig?’ (Pok. 523)
Lith. šakà ‘bough, twig’; Skt. śa̅́kha̅- ‘bough, twig’
Notes: {1} Possibly, non-IE. {2} Pl. thekë with umlaut of the root vowel.

(i) thjellët {1} [adj] (t) ‘clear, serene, fair (weather)’
PAlb. *ϑel(u)- < QIE *ḱelH-(u)o-
Alb. (i) k(ë)thjellë(t) {2} [adj] (tg) ‘clear, serene, fair (weather)’; thëllim {3} [m] (tg) ‘frosen and clear weather, ice wind, severe cold’ (AE 394)
PIE *ḱelH- ‘to freeze’ (Pok. 551)
Lith. šálti ‘to freeze’
Notes: {1} Formation with -(ë)t(ë). {2} Alb. formation with the prefix k(ë)-. {3} Alb. formation with the suffix -ím.

(i) thellë [adj] (tg) ‘deep’
PAlb. *ϑauil-
Alb. k(ë)thellë [f] (g) ‘cave, cavity, hole, abyss’; thellësi [f] (g) ‘deepening’ (AE 394)
PIE *ḱouilo- (Pok. 593)
Gr. κοι̃λος ‘hollow’

k(ë)thap {1} [m] (g) ‘hook, claw’
PAlb. *ϑo̅p-, ̊tśap- < QIE *ḱ(o)h3-po-
Alb. thep [m] (tg) ‘peak, point (of the rock, stone), spike’ (AE 395)
PIE *ḱeh3-(i-) ‘to sharpen, whet’ (Pok. 541)
Lat. cippus ‘pale, peak, point’ {2}
Notes: {1} Esp. pl. k(ë)thapë; Alb. formation with the prefix k(ë)-. {2} Indirectly cognate.

thëri {1} [f] (t); thëni [f] (tg) ‘nit, egg of the louse’
PAlb. *ϑaní(-) (AE 397)
PIE *ḱ(o)nid(-) ‘louse, egg of the louse, nit’ (Pok. 608)
Gr. κονίς ‘louse’
Arm. anic ‘louse’
Notes: {1} Frequently thërri with hardening of the vibrant in inlaut for expressive reasons.

thi [m] (tg) ‘pig’
PAlb. *ϑū- {1} (AE 397)
PIE *suH-s ‘pig, hog, swine’ _?_ (Pok. 1038)
Gr. ὗς ‘pig’
Notes: {1} This reconstruction presupposes an ancient regressive, not more precisely determinable dissimilation of the two s. We cannot exclude the possibility of an ancient loan from (or a joint source with) Gr. συ̃ς, cf. Alb. thes ’bag’ vs. Gr. σάκκος ‘id’.

thjer(ë) {2} [m/f] (tg) ‘lentil’
PAlb. *(ϑi)ϑer-
Alb. (i) thjermë [adj] (g) ‘ashy’ {3} (AE 398)
PIE *ḱiḱer- {1} ‘pea(s)?’ (Pok. 598)
Gr. κρίος ‘chick-pea’
Arm. siser̄n ‘chick-pea’
Notes: {1} Non-IE ‘Kulturwort’. {2} Frequently thjerr(ë) with hardened vibrant. {3} Lit. ‘with the colour of lentils’.

udhë [f] (tg) ‘road, way’
PAlb. *uδ < QIE *uǵh-o- (AE 400)
PIE *ueǵh- ‘to move, walk’ (Pok. 1118)
Skt. váhati ‘to drive’

ujë [m/n] (tg) ‘water’
PAlb. *uri- < QIE *(H)uh1r̥(-io-) (AE 401)
PIE *(H)u(e)h1-r- ‘water’ (Pok. 80)
Skt. va̅́r- ‘water’

ulk {1}, ujk [m] (tg) ‘wolf’
PAlb. *ulk(w)- (AE 403)
PIE *ul̥kw-o- ‘wolf’ (Pok. 1178)
Go. wulfs ‘wolf’; OCS vlъkъ ‘wolf’
Notes: {1} This form occurs only in the oldest literature (Buz.) and in the conservative dialects of Tosk.

urë [f] (tg) ‘bridge’
PAlb. *ur(u)a̅ (AE 403)
PIE *u(e)r(u)-? ‘bow, doorway?’ _?_
Mess. urios ‘portam’; Osc. veru ‘portam’
Notes: {1} [MdV] One may consider a derivation of PIE *Huer- ‘to cover’.

va [m] (tg) ‘ford, ferry(-boat)’
PAlb. *ua(d) < QIE *uh2dh- (AE 405)
PIE *ueh2dh- ‘to go, walk’ _?_ (Pok. 1109)
Lat. vadum {1} ford
Notes: {1} It is impossible to determine, whether Alb. va is genetically related to Lat. vadum or a loanword.

vaj [interjection] (tg) ‘woe!, alas!’
PAlb. *uai
Alb. vaj [m] {1} (tg) ‘wailing, weep, lamentation for the dead’ (AE 405)
PIE *uai? ‘woe!, alas!’ (Pok. 1110)
Gr. ὀά ‘woe!, alas!’
Arm. vay ‘pain’
Notes: {1} Pl. vaje f.

valë [f] (tg) ‘wave, billow’
PAlb. *ualla̅ {1} < QIE *uol(H)g- (AE 407)
PIE *uel(H)g- ‘to revolve, turn, twist’ (Pok. 1144)
OE wealca ‘billow’
Notes: {1} Has entered the declension of the fem. -a̅-stems.

valë [adv] (tg) ‘hot, boiling’
PAlb. *ualla̅ < QIE *uol(H)-ie/o- (AE 1140)
PIE *uel(H)- ‘(luke)warm’ _?_ (Pok. 1140)
Arm. gol ‘heat’
OHG walo ‘lukewarm’

vãng [m] (g) ‘(b)rim, felloe’
PAlb. *uang- < QIE *uon(H)g-
Alb. vëth / vãth [m] ‘ear-ring’ {1}; vëngëroj {2} / vãngoj {3} [verb] ‘to (have a) squint, squint at, skew’ (AE 408)
PIE *uen(H)g- ‘to be bent, curved?’ (Pok. 1148)
Lith. vìngis bow, crooking; OHG wanko̅n ‘to shake, totter, stagger’
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -th(ë): Alb. *vang-θ. {2} Denominative formation with -ëró-. {3} Denominative formation with -ó-.

varr / vorr [m] ‘grave, tomb’
PAlb. *a̅̆ur(V)n- (AE 409) _−_ (Pok. 1161)
Go. aurahjons ‘tombs’

varrë [f] (g) ‘wound, tearing’
PAlb. *uar(e)na̅ < QIE *uor(H)-(en-) (AE 410)
PIE *uer(H)- ‘to cut (off), tear’ _?_ (Pok. 1163 {1})
Skt. vraṇá- ‘wound, tearing’; Av. xvara- ‘wound, hurt’
Notes: {1} Or suer- ’to cut, slaughter’, p. 1050.

vatër / votër [f] ‘hearth, fire-place’
PAlb. *a̅t(e)ra̅ {1} (AE 410)
PIE *HeHt(e)r- ‘fire’ (Pok. 69)
Lat. a̅ter ‘black, sombre (blackened by fire)’; a̅trium ‘main hall of a house, containing the fire’
Av. a̅tarš ‘fire’
Notes: {1} Possibly, an old loanword from Latin.

vath(ë) [m/f] (tg) ‘sheep-fold/pen, cote (fenced area, in which the small cattle is herded together for the night)’
PAlb. *(a)uaϑa̅ < QIE *h2uos-d(h)- (AE 412)
PIE *h2ues- ‘to dwell, abide, pass/stay the night’ (Pok. 1170)
Skt. va̅sá- ‘sojourn, stay, spending the night’; Skt. próṣṭha- ‘lodging’

veg(ë) [m/f] (tg) ‘handle (of pot), hook, curved handle’
PAlb. *uaiga̅ < QIE *uoiH-(G-)
Alb. vegël [f] (tg) {1} ‘tool, implement’ (AE 412)
PIE *ueiH, ueHi- ‘to revolve, spin, plait’ (Pok. 1120)
Lat. vieo̅ to bend, plait
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -(ë)l.

verë / vẽnë [f] ‘wine’
PAlb. *uaina̅ < QIE *uoiH-n-
Alb. vësht(ë) {1} / vẽsht(ë) {2} [m/f] ‘vineyard’ (AE 414)
PIE *u(e)iH-(o)n- ‘wine’ (Pok. 1121)
Gr. οἷνος wine
Notes: {1} From PAlb. uóin-eśt- beside pl. v(ë)reshta from PAlb. *uoin-éśt-. {2} Pl. v(ë)neshta.

verr(ë) [m/f] (tg) ‘alder’
PAlb. *uo̅r-, uar(e/i)n-
Alb. vërri / v(ë)rrĩ [f] ‘alder’ (AE 414)
PIE *uer-(e)neh2? ‘alder, poplar’ (Pok. 1169)
Arm. geran ‘trabs, tignum’
Bret. gwern ‘alder’

urrë [f] (tg) ‘sap-wood’
PAlb. *urna̅ < QIE *ur-neh2 (AE 414)
PIE *uer-(e)neh2? ‘alder, poplar’ (Pok. 1169)

vesh {2} [m] (tg) ‘ear’
PAlb. *(a)uaśi̅ < QIE *h2(e)usós-ih1 (AE 415)
PIE *h2eusos ‘ear’ (Pok. 785)
Lat. auris ‘ear’
Lith. ausìs ‘ear’
Notes: {1} Dual form. {2} With umlaut of the root vowel.

vetë {2} [pron] (tg) ‘(one)self’
PAlb. *uai-(t-) < QIE *suoi-(to/i-) (AE 416)
PIE *sue- {1} ‘(one)self, own’ (Pok. 882)
Skt. svayám ‘oneself’; OCS svojь ‘own’
Notes: {1} Pronominal stem of the reflexive pronoun. {2} The final syllable -të may also be explained as an Alb. enlargement in -të.

u {5} [particle] {1} (tg) ‘oneself’
PAlb. *ue-
Alb. u [pronpers] (tg) {3} ‘I’ (AE 400)
PIE *sue- ‘(one)self, own’ (Pok. 882)
Gr. ἓ ‘oneself’
Notes: {1} Particle for the formation of the Alb. reflexive and passive of the non-present tempora and modi. {3} Frequently enlarged to unë, which can be explained as a compound with a pronominal element në < no-.

vëlla [m] (tg) ‘brother’
PAlb. * ̊(e)lau(D) {1} < QIE *h1loudhi- (AE 417)
PIE *h1leudh- ‘rise, shoot up’ _?_ (Pok. 684)
OE le̅od ‘nation, people’; Go. jugga-lauÞs ‘youth, young man’
Notes: {1} Possibly < *uai-láu(d) (< *suoi- h1loudhi-), an old compound with the reflexive pronoun ve(të) ‘own, self’. The plural stem Alb. *vəɫaz- (> vëllezër / vëllazën) can be derived phonetically from *laudi- .

viç [m] (tg) ‘calf (until one year old)’
PAlb. *ueteś- (AE 417)
PIE *uet-es- ‘year’ (Pok. 1175)
Lat. veterinus ‘draught-cattle’
Skt. vatsá ‘calf’

vig [m] (tg) ‘stretcher, litter, bier, transition (consisting of beams)’
PAlb. *uig- (AE 418)
PIE *u(e)i-K- ‘to revolve, turn, twist’ _?_ (Pok. 1130)
OE wice ‘patch’; OIc. vik ‘bight’

vis [m] (tg) ‘place, land, country’
PAlb. *uiti-(a̅) < QIE *uiḱ(i)i-
Alb. amvisë [f] (g) ‘housewife’; visele [f] (t) {1} ‘cottage, country-house’ (AE 419)
PIE *ueiḱ- ‘house, settlement’ (Pok. 1131)
Gr. οἰκία house
Notes: {1} Enlargement with -le.

vjet {1}, vit {2} [m] (tg) ‘year’
PAlb. *uet-
Alb. vjet [adv] {3} (tg) ‘last year’ (AE 419)
PIE *uetos ‘year’ (Pok. 1175)
Gr. ἔτος ‘year’
Notes: {1} Mostly pl. {2} Mostly sg., originated from the generalization of a weak case form. {3} Originated from a frozen case of the singular: uet-es-i or uetes.

vito {1} [f] (t) ‘dove’
PAlb. *(a)uit-
Alb. vidë [f] (g) ‘dove’; vit/d [interjection] {2} (g), cf. avdosë (AE 420)
PIE *h2eui-(to-) ‘bird’ (Pok. 86)
Gr. αἰετός ‘eagle’
Bret. houad ‘duck’
Notes: {1} The auslaut derives from an exclamation particle (-)o, which also occurs as a grammatical characteristic of the Alb. vocative. {2} Call for pigeons.

vjehërr [m] (tg) ‘father-in-law’
PAlb. *ueh(u)Vr-
Alb. vjeh(ë)rrë [f] (tg) {1} ‘mother-in-law’ (AE 422)
PIE *sueḱue/or- ‘father-in-law’ (Pok. 1043)
Gr. ἑκυρός ‘father-in-law’
Skt. śváśura- ‘father-in-law’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the fem. suffix -ë.

vorbull {1} [f] (tg) ‘whirlpool, -wind, vortex, swirl’
PAlb. *ue̅rb- < QIE *ue̅rb(h)-
Alb. vorbë [f] (tg) ‘amphora’ {2} (AE 424)
PIE *uer-b(h)- ‘to revolve, twist, turn (down)’ _?_ (Pok. 1153)
Go. wairpan ‘to throw’
Notes: {1} Beside rare vorbë ’id’; vorbull contains an enlargement -ull(ë). {2} The connection of this word is disputed. One could also consider a borrowing or a calque from Gr ἀμφορεύς ‘conic jar with two handles’.

vrap {1} [m] (tg) ‘running, race’
PAlb. * ̊rap- < QIE *(h1)rh1p-, ̊rap-
Alb. vrap [adv] (tg) ‘speedily’ (AE 424)
PIE *(h1)reh1p- ‘to creep?’ _?_ (Pok. 865)
Lat. re̅po̅ ‘to creep’
Latv. rãpt ‘to creep’
Notes: {1} Formation with the intensive-privative prefix v(ë)-.

zë / zã [m] ‘sound, voice’
PAlb. *dan- (AE 425)
PIE *huon-o-s ‘sound’ (Pok. 490)
Arm. jayn ‘sound’
OCS zvonъ ‘sound’

(i) zi {1} [adj] (tg) ‘black’
PAlb. *di̅̆d(i-) (AE 427)
PIE *gwiH-d-, gwHi-d- ‘light-, grey-coloured’ _?_ (Pok. 488)
Gr. φαιός ‘(dark)grey, black’; φαίδιμός ‘brilliant’
Notes: {1} f (e) zezë from *did(i)a̅.

zjarm [m] (tg) ‘fire’
PAlb. *derm- < QIE *gwher-mo-
Alb. zjarr [m] (tg) ‘fire, fever’ {1} (AE 429)
PIE *gwher- ‘hot, warm’ (Pok. 493)
Gr. θερμός ‘warm’
Arm. ǰerm ‘warm’
Notes: {1} Unclear formation. One could consider an Alb. suffix change of the type Lat. formus ‘warm’ : fornus ‘oven’. A different possibility is assimilation to the root *ǵuer(H)- ’to shine and be hot’, cf Latv. zvêruot ‘to glow’, Skt. jvara- ‘fever’.

zog [m] (tg) ‘bird (for small bird species), young animal, nestling’
PAlb. *da̅g- (AE 429)
PIE *(h)(u)eh2-G- ‘young animal, nestling’ _−_ (Pok. 909)
Arm. jag ‘nestling’

zorrë [f] (tg) ‘bowel, intestine(s)’
PAlb. *de̅rna̅ {1} < QIE *gwhe̅r-(?)n- (AE 430)
PIE *gwher- ‘to swallow’ _?_ (Pok. 474)
Notes: {1} The connection with other IE words for ‘intestine(s)’, viz. her-, ǵhor-na̅ (Pok. 443), which is more convincing semantically, can only be upheld if we assume a variant with a semivowel: huer-. {2} [MdV] But where would the semivowel come from?

zot {1} [m] (tg) ‘God’
PAlb. *die̅u ̊
Alb. zo(n)jë [m] (tg) ‘lady, misstress, patroness’ {2} (AE 431)
PIE *die̅u- ‘sky’ (Pok. 184)
Gr. Zεύς ‘God’
Skt. dyáus ‘sky’
Notes: {1} An old compound for ‘heavenly father’. -t apparently reflects Alb. at(ë) < a(t)ta ‘father’, cf. dya̅́uṣ pita̅́. {2} < Alb. *zotVnia̅.

rrodhe [fns/p] (tg) ‘burr’
PAlb. *ra̅δ- (AE 48)
PIE *ureh2h- {1} ‘thorn’ (Pok. 1180)
Gr. ῥᾱχός ‘sprig, thorn(-bush)’
Notes: {1} Probably, a non-IE word.

urth [m] (tg) ‘ivy’
PAlb. *urδ- < QIE *ur̥ǵh-o- (AE 48)
PIE *uer-ǵh- ‘to turn, twist’ (Pok. 1154)
Lith. viržỹs ‘heath(er), ling’

uri {1} [f] (t); ũ(n) [m] (g) ‘hunger’
PAlb. *un- < QIE *uṇH-o- (AE 51)
PIE *uenH- ‘to love, desire, request’ _?_ (Pok. 1146)
Skt. vánas- ‘request, preference, bias’
Notes: {1} Singulare tantum. Enlargement with the fem. (collective) suffix -í.

ãnkoj [verb] (g); ãngoj [verb] (g) ‘to sigh, groan’
Present: ãnkohem (1sr); Aorist: u ãnkova (1sr); Part.: ãnku(e); Present: ãngohem (1sr); Aorist: u ãngova (1sr); Part.: ãngu(e)
PAlb. *ank-e̅- {1} < QIE *Honk-(eh1-)
Alb. rënkoj [verb] (t) {2} ‘to sigh, groan’ [Present: rënkoj; Aorist: rënkova; Part.: rënkuar] (AE 78)
PIE *Henk-, Honk- ‘to sigh, groan’ (Pok. 322)
Gr. ὀγκάομαι ‘to cry, roar’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the suffix -e̅- < -eh1-. {2} Alb. formation with the intensiv prefix r(ë)-/rr(ë)-.

ap, jap {3} [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to give’
Present: (j)ap, (j)ep (2/3s) {2}
PAlb. *apei- < QIE *h2op-eie- (AE 79)
PIE *h2ep- ‘to reach, get at/to, capture’ (Pok. 50)
Skt. a̅páyati ‘to reach’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, which occurs only in the present and in tempora and modi derived from the present stem. {2} The form of the 2nd and 3rd person ep points to an ancient umlaut in the root vowel, possibly Alb. *api̅̆. {3} with j-epenthesis possibly after jam ’I am’.

bar {3} [verb] (g) ‘to carry away, bear, endure’
Present: bar; Aorist: barta; Part.: bartë
PAlb. *barei- < QIE *bhor-eie-
Alb. (m)baj [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to carry away, bear, endure’ [Present: (m)baj; Aorist: (m)bajta; Part.: (m)bajtur / (m)bajtun]; mbaroj [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to complete, end, finish’ [Present: mbaroj; Aorist: mbarova; Part.: mbaruar / mbaru(e)] (AE 86)
PIE *bher- ‘to carry’ (Pok. 130)
Gr. φορέω ‘to carry’
Notes: {1} < bhor-io- as denominative formation with the intensive prefix (a)n-. {2} Alb. formation with the verbal suffix -o- < PAlb -e̅- (< -eh1-).

bëj [verb] (tg) ‘to do, make; appear, make one’s appearance’
Present: bëj / bãj; Aorist: bëra / bãna; Part.: bërë / bã(në)
PAlb. *bani- < QIE *bhh2-nio-; bhh2-no- (part.) (AE 97)
PIE *bheh2- ‘to shine’ (Pok. 104)
Gr. φαίνω ‘to loom, to be seen’

bie {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to carry, bear; bring’
Present: bie
PAlb. *beri- {1} < QIE *bher-io- (AE 99)
PIE *bher- ‘to carry, bear; bring’ (Pok. 128)
Gr. (Hom.) φέρτε ‘to carry, bear; bring’
Lat. fer ‘to carry, bear; bring’
Skt. bhárti ‘to carry, bear; bring’
Notes: {1} Has entered the class of io-verbs after the dissolution of the athematic conjugation. {2} Suppletive verb, which occurs only in the present and in tempora and modi derived from the present.

bie {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to fall (down), lay (down); beat’
Present: bie
PAlb. *beri- < QIE *bherH-io- (AE 100)
PIE *bherH- ‘to split; beat’ (Pok. 133)
Lat. ferio̅ to beat, push
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, which occurs only in the present and in tempora and modi derived from the present.

bij [verb] (tg) ‘to sprout, grow out’
Present: bij / bĩj; Aorist: biva / bĩva; Part.: birë / bĩ(m), bitë
PAlb. *bi̅̆ni- < QIE *bhi(H)-nio-; bhi(H)-no/to- (part.)
Alb. mbij [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to sprout, grow out’ [Present: mbij / mbĩj; Aorist: mbiva / mbĩva; Part.: mbirë / mbĩ]; bimë / bĩm(ë) [f] ‘plant’ {2}, cf. bir, bisht (AE 100)
PIE *bhei(H)- ‘to beat, strike’ (Pok. 117)
OCS bijǫ ‘to beat’
Notes: {1} Intensive formation with the prefix (a)n-. {2} Deverbative formation from Alb. *bi-ma.

bind / bĩnd [verb] ‘to convince, persuade; amaze’
Present: bind / bĩnd; Aorist: binda / bĩnda; Part.: bindë / bĩndë
PAlb. *bind- < QIE *bhi-n-dh-o- {1}
Alb. bĩnd [m] (g) ‘wonder’; përbindësh / përbĩnd(ë)sh [m] ‘monster’ (AE 101)
PIE *bheidh- ‘to persuade, encourage; constrain’ (Pok. 117)
Gr. πείθω ‘to persuade, convince’
Notes: {1} Original nasal present.

bjerr {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to lose, forfeit’
Present: bjerr; Aorist: bora; Part. bjerrë
PAlb. *ber- < QIE *bher-o-; bhe̅r- (aor.)
Alb. borë [f] (tg) ‘snow’ {1} (AE 104)
PIE *bher- ‘to strew, spread; fall’
Lith. ber̃ti ‘to strew’
Notes: {1} May also have arisen from a contamination with the European word for ‘Northern wind’ (Gr. βορέας, (Nord)It. bora), cf (dial.) borlë [f] (t) ‘Northern wind’.

blegërin [verb] (tg) ‘to bleat’
Present: blegërin (3s); Aorist: blegëriti (3s); Part.: blegëritë
PAlb. *bleg ̊ {2} < QIE *b(h)le-Gh- (AE 104)
PIE *b(h)le- {1} ‘to bleat’ (Pok. 102)
Gr. βληχάομαι ‘to bleat’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} Enlarged with the suffix -ëró/í- .

bredh [verb] (tg) ‘to spring, jump, hop; roam about’
Present: bredh; Aorist: brodha; Part.: bredhur / bredhë, bredhun
PAlb. *breδ- < QIE *bhred(h)-o-; bhre̅d(h)- (aor.) (AE 108)
PIE *bhred(h)- ‘to wade (in, through)’ (Pok. 164)
Lith. brìsti ‘to wade’; RuCS bresti ‘to wade’

brej [verb] (tg) ‘to gnaw (down), rub, nibble, scratch’
Present: brej; Aorist: brejta, breva; Part.: brejtur / brejt(ë)
PAlb. *brei- < QIE *bhreiH-o- (AE 108)
PIE *bhreiH- ‘to rub, scratch’ (Pok. 166)
Lat. frio̅ ‘to rub, grind, crumble’
RuCS briti ‘to cut, shear’

brij {1} [f] (tg) ‘to rub, scratch’
Present: brij / brĩj
PAlb. *brin(i)- < QIE *bhri-n-(e)H-o-
Alb. brimë [f] (tg) ‘hole’; birë [f] (tg) ‘hole’ {2} (AE 108)
PIE *bhreiH- ‘to rub, scratch’ (Pok. 166)
Skt. bhri̅ṇánti ‘to wound’
Notes: {1} Occurs nearly exclusively in the present. {2} Metathesized from Alb. *briə.

mbruaj {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to knead’
Present: mbruaj / mbru(e)j; Aorist: mbru(a)jta / mbru(e)jta; Part.: mbru(a)jtur / mbru(e)jtë, mbru(e)jtun
PAlb. *bra̅u- {1} < QIE *bhreh1u-o- (AE 111)
PIE *bhreh1u- ‘to boil up, ferment’ (Pok. 143)
Lat. ferveo̅ ‘to boil (up), bubble’
Notes: {1} From *bre̅u-. {2} Intensive formation with the prefix (a)n-.

buj [verb] (tg) ‘to pass, stay overnight’
Present: buj / bũj; Aorist: bujta / bũjta; Part: bujtur / bũjtë, bũjtun
PAlb. *budn- < QIE *bhudh-no-
Alb. përbũj [verb] (g) ‘to vigil’ [Present: përbũj; Aorist: përbũjta; Part.: përbũjtë] {1} (AE 111)
PIE *bheudh-, root *bhudh ‘to be awake, to observe, watch’ _+_ (Pok. 150)
Lith. bùsti ‘to wake’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix për-.

cys [verb] (tg) ‘to put in motion, stimulate, goad, fury’
Present: cys, cyt (2/3s); Aorist: cyta; Part: cytë
PAlb. * ̊tiuti- {2} < QIE *kiu-t-io- {1} (AE 116)
PIE *kei-, ki-(eu-) ‘to put, set in motion; be on the move’ (Pok. 538)
Gr. (Hom.) ἔσσυτο ‘hasted’
Notes: {1} From an original participle *ki-u-to-. {2} Intensive formation with the Alb. prefix d(ë)-.

ndërsej [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to set on (to do), incite, instigate’
Present: ndërsej; Aorist: ndërseva; Part.: ndërsyer / ndërsy(e)
PAlb. *teu- < QIE *kieu-o- (AE 116)
PIE *kei-, ki-(eu-) ‘to put, set in motion; be on the move’ (Pok. 538)
Gr. σεύω ‘to actuate’
Lat. cieo̅ ‘to set in motion’
Notes: {1} Intensive formation with the Alb. prefix ndër-.

çaj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to cut to pieces, to hack’
Present: çaj; Aorist: çava; Part.: çarë / ça(m)
PAlb. * ̊śari- < QIE *sər-io-
Alb. shaj [verb] (tg) ‘to insult, revile, slander’; çart [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to split; kill, put to death’; shartoj [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to weed (out)’ (AE 116)
PIE *ser- ‘to cut (with a sickle), fall (to bits), hack (to pieces)’ (Pok. 911)
Lat. sario̅ ‘to weed (out)’
Notes: {1} From d(ə)-śaj as an intensive formation with the Alb. prefix d(ë)-. {2} From an Alb. participle stem in -t(ë). {3} Deverbative formation with -o- < e̅ (< -eh1-).

shkal {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to tread, spur (on the heel)’
Present: shkal (t), shkel {2} (tg), shkel (2s) (tg) {3}; Aorist: shkala (t), shkela (tg); Part.: shkelur / shkelë, shkelun {4}
PAlb. * ̊kall- < QIE *kol-io-
Alb. shkelm [m] (tg) {5} ‘footstep’; shqelm [m] (tg) ‘footstep’ (AE 118)
PIE *kel- ‘biegen’ _?_ (Pok. 928)
Lat. calco̅ ‘to spur’
Lith. atsikal̃ti ‘to lean against (upon)’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix sh- {2} with umlaut of the root vowel after the 2nd and 3d person {3} from Alb. śkalXXX. {4} with umlaut of the root vowel after the 2nd and 3d person< {5} Alb. formation with -m(ë): maybe ̥kalim-.

daj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to divide; cut’
Present: daj; Aorist: dava; Part.: darë / da(m)
PAlb. *dai- < QIE *dh2-eie-
Alb. dalloj [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to separate’ (AE 119)
PIE *deh2-, root *dh2- ‘to divide’ _+_ (Pok. 175)
Skt. dáyate ‘to divide; destroy’
Notes: {1} Frequently in prefixed form ndaj. {2} Alb. formation in -(u)llój.

dal [verb] (tg) ‘to go out, rise; sprout (of seeds), grow (of plants)’
Present: dal, del (2s); Aorist: dolla (t), dola (tg) {1}; Part.: dalë
PAlb. *daln- < QIE *dheh2l-; dhh2l-no- (part.) (AE 120)
PIE *dheh2l- ‘to grow, get on?’ (Pok. 234)
Gr. θάλλω ‘to bloom, grow of plants’
Notes: {1} With secondary palatal -l-.

dars [f] (t) ‘to banquet, dine’
Present: dars(ënj); Aorist: darsa
PAlb. *dartei- < QIE *dorkw-eie/o- {1}
Alb. da(r)smë [f] (tg) ‘wedding dinner’; dasëm [f] (tg) ‘wedding dinner’, cf. darkë, drekë (AE 123)
PIE *dorkw- ‘meal?’ (Pok. 210)
Gr. δόρπον ‘supper, dinner; evening’
Notes: {1} Old denominative along the pattern of the original causatives.

dej [verb] (tg) ‘to get drunk’
Present: dej, deh {1}, dehem (1sr); Aorist: dejta; Part.: dejtur(ë) / dejtunë
PAlb. *dej < QIE *dhh1-eie- (AE 125)
PIE *dheh1- ‘to suck, drink’ (Pok. 241)
Skt. dháyati ‘to suck’; Latv. dêt ‘to suck’
Notes: {1} Arose secondarily under the influence of the non-active paradigm.

tend [verb] (tg) ‘to stuff, cram; to compress’
Present: dend / tẽnd, dẽnd {1}; Aorist: denda / tẽnda, dẽnda; Part.: dendë / tẽndë, dẽndë
PAlb. *tend- < QIE *tendo- (AE 129)
PIE *ten-d- ‘to distend; draw, strech (out)’ (Pok. 1065)
Lat. tendo̅ ‘to strech (out), strain’
Notes: {1} With assimilation of the anlaut.

dergj- {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to be bedridden, be lying ill, pine away’
Present: dergjem (1sr); Aorist: (u) dergja (1sr); Part.: dergjurë / dergjë, dergjunë
PAlb. *dargei- < QIE *dhorHg(h)-eie- ?? (AE 131)
PIE *dherHg(h)- ‘?’ (Pok. 251)
Lith. dìrgti ‘to feel faint, faint’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel, as usual in the Alb. non-active paradigm.

djerg [verb] (tg) ‘to be lying ill; to fall down’
Present: djerg; Aorist: dorgja; Part.: djergur / djergë
PAlb. *derg- < QIE *dherHg(h)-o-; dhe̅rHg(h)- (aor.) (AE 131)
PIE *dherHg(h)- ‘?’ (Pok. 251)
Lith. dìrgti ‘to feel faint, faint’

di {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to know, be aware; be able’
Present: di; Aorist: dita; Part.: ditë;
PAlb. *di̅- < QIE *dhiH-; dhiH-to- (part.)
Alb. ndiej, ndjej [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to feel, to notice, to observe’ (AE 132)
PIE *dheiH- ‘to observe, perceive; to think out, devise’ (Pok. 243)
Skt. dhi̅tá- ‘thought of’
Notes: {1} Arose analogically from an aor. stem. {2} Alb. enlargement in -e-: Alb. *(a)n-di-e-.

djeg [verb] (tg) ‘to burn’
Present: djeg, digjem (1sr); Aorist: dogja; Part.: djegur / djegun, djegë
PAlb. *deg- < QIE *dhegwh-o-; dhe̅gwh- (aor.) (AE 138)
PIE *dhegwh- ‘to burn’ (Pok. 240)
Skt. dáhati ‘to burn’

dredh [verb] (tg) ‘to revolve, turn; wind’
Present: dredh; Aorist: drodha; Part.: dredhur / dredhë, dredhun
PAlb. *dre̅̆δ- < QIE *dreǵh-o-; dre̅ǵh- (aor.)
Alb. ï = U+00EF (AE 143) (Pok. 258)
Arm. dar̄nam ‘to turn, revolve’

dridh- {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to tremble, quake, rock’
Present: dridhem (1sr); Aorist: (u) drodha {2}; Part.: dridhur / dridhë, dridhun
PAlb. *dreδ- < QIE *d(h)r-ed(h)-o-; d(h)re̅d(h)- (aor.)? (AE 143)
PIE *d(h)r- ‘to tremble, quake, rock’
Lith. drebù ‘to tremble, quake’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, a reconstruction d(h)r̥d(h)- is also possible. {2} May be explained as a contamination with dredh, aor. drodha ‘to turn’.

duo {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to want, wish’
Present: dua / du(e); Aorist: desha {2}; Part.: dashur / dashë, dashun
PAlb. *dua̅mm < QIE *dueh2-s-mi; duh2(e)s- (aor.) (AE 149)
PIE *deuh2-(s-) ‘to lack (a thing), to be short of’ _?_ (Pok. 219)
Gr. (Aeol., Hom.) δεύω ‘to lack, want (a thing), to fail’
Notes: {1} Buz. {2} < Alb. *daš- with umlaut of the root vowel.

dhashë {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to give’
Aorist: dhashë {2}; Part.: dhënë / dhãnë
PAlb. *(e)δaś- < QIE *h1e-dh3-(e)s-m̥; (h1e-)dh3s-no- (part.) (AE 154)
PIE *deh3- ‘to give’ (Pok. 154)
Skt. ádiṣi ‘to give’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, occurs only in the non-present paradigm. {2} dhae, dhe (g) arose analogically after the form of the 2s dhae, dhe < h1e-dh3(e)s-s.

dhemb [verb] (tg) ‘to smart’
Present: dhemb / dhẽm(b) (3s); Aorist: dhembi / dhẽm(b)i (3s); Part.: dhembur / dhembun
PAlb. *δemb- < QIE *ǵembh-o- (AE 156)
PIE *ǵembh- ‘to bite’ (Pok. 369)
Skt. jámbhate ‘to snap’

dhjes [verb] (tg) ‘to shit’
Present: dhjes, dhjet (2/3s); Aorist: dhjeva; Part.: dhjerë / dhi(m) {1}
PAlb. *(d)δeti- < QIE *h(e̅̆)d-(etio-) (AE 161)
PIE *hed- ‘to shit’ (Pok. 423)
Gr. χέζω ‘to shit’
Notes: {1} The aor. and partic. stems have been reshaped according to the existing models in the Albanian verb system.

flas [verb] (tg) ‘to speak, tell’
Present: flas; Aorist: fola; Part.: folur / folë
PAlb. *śp(e)lati- {1} < QIE *spel-(otio-); spe̅l- (aor.) (AE 162)
PIE *(s)pel- ‘to call, speak loudly’ (Pok. 985)
Go. spillon ‘to pronounce, announce, tell’
Notes: {1} Enlargement in -(V)tio-.

end [verb] (tg) ‘to ploit, weave’
Present: end / ẽn(d); Aorist: enda / ẽn(d)a; Part.: endur / en(d)un
PAlb. *(h)aunt- < QIE *h2eu-(e)nt- (AE 166)
PIE *h2eu- ‘to ploit, weave’ (Pok. 75)

endem [verb] (tg) ‘to gallivant about a place, gad about’
Present: endem / ẽn(d)em (1sr); Aorist: (u) enda / (u) ẽn(d)a (1sr); Part.: endur / ẽn(d)ë, ẽn(d)un
PAlb. *ende- < QIE *h1ṇdhe- (AE 167)
PIE *h1(e)ndh- ‘way, to go’
Gr. ἐνθει̃ν (aor.) ‘to come’
Skt. ádhvan- ‘way’

ënj [verb] (tg) ‘to swell, inflame’
Present: ë(n)j / ãj; Aorist: ë(n)jta / ãjta; Part.: ë(n)jtur / ãjtë, ãj(t)un
PAlb. *aidn(i)- < QIE *Hoid-n(i)o- (AE 171)
PIE *Hoid- ‘to swell’ (Pok. 774)
Arm. aytnowm ‘to swell’

ftoh {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to cool’
Present: ftoh; Aorist: ftoha; Part.: ftohur / ftohë
PAlb. *tpe̅-(h) {1} < QIE *t(e)p-eh1- (AE 173)
PIE *tep- ‘to be warm?’ (Pok. 1069)
Lat. tepeo̅ ‘to be lukewarm, tepid’
Notes: {1} Rebuilt analogically after the original inchoatives. {2} From a metathesized preform ptoh.

fshij [verb] (tg) ‘to wipe; sweep’
Present: fshij; Aorist: fshiva; Part.: fshirë / fshi(m)
PAlb. *Pśi̅(i)- < QIE *bhsi(H)-(i)o- (AE 173)
PIE *bhes-, bhes-ei(H)- ‘to rub (off)’ (Pok. 145)
OHG bes(a)mo ‘broom’

gdhend {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to carve, chisel’
Present: gdhend / (g)dhẽn(d); Aorist: gdhenda / (g)dhẽn(d)a; Part.: gdhendur / (g)dhen(d)ë, (g)dhen(d)un
PAlb. * ̊δend- < QIE *dhen-d(h)/t- (AE 175)
PIE *dhen- ‘to beat, push’ (Pok. 249)
ON detta ‘to fall down’
Notes: {1} With the prefix g(ë)-.

di [verb 3sp] (t) ‘to dawn (daylight)’
Present: di (3s) {1}; Aorist: dijti (3s); Part.: dijturë, dihurë
PAlb. *di̅(i)- < QIE *dih2-(i)o-
Alb. gdhin [verb 3sp] (tg) {2} ‘to dawn (daylight)’; gdhij [verb] (tg) ‘to pass the night sleeplessly’; (të) gdhitë [n] (t) {3} ‘dawn, early morning’; gdhimë [f] (g) {4} ‘dawn, early morning’; (të) gdhirë [n] (t) {5} ‘dawn, early morning’ (AE 176)
PIE *deih2- ‘to light, shine’ (Pok. 183)
Gr. δῑνάω ‘to radiate, to shine’
Notes: {1} Esp. in the non-active paradigm dihet (t). {2} With the prefix g(ë)-. {3} Alb. formation from the participle stem (gV-)di̅t-. {4} From the participle stem (gV-)di̅m-. {5} From the participle stem (gV-)di̅n-.

gogësij {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to yawn, gape’
Present: gogësij; Aorist: gogësita, gogësiva; Part.: gogësirë / gogësi(m)
PAlb. *ga̅̆ga̅̆-(ti-) < QIE *gha̅̆gha̅̆-
Alb. gogëso(n)j [verb] (tg) ‘to yawn, gape’; gugas [verb] (tg) ‘to coo (of doves)’ (AE 179)
PIE *gheh2-(gheh2-) {1} ‘to yawn, gape’ (Pok. 419)
Gr. χάσκω ‘to yawn, gape’
Lith. gagù ‘to cackle’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} From gogës- as a verbal basis for further Alb. verbal formations.

grish [verb] (tg) ‘to invite, welcome’
Present: grish; Aorist: grisha; Part.: grishurë / grishë, grishunë
PAlb. *griś- < QIE *gwr̥-s- (AE 180)
PIE *gwer-s- ‘to raise one’s voice, lift up a cry; set up a clamour’ (Pok. 478)
Lith. gar̃sas ‘call, sound’

grah [verb] (tg) ‘to incite; bellow, roar; rattle’
Present: grah {1} / Aorist: graha; Part.: grahë
PAlb. *grah < QIE *gwr̥H-ske/o- (AE 180)
PIE *gwer-H- ‘to raise a cry’ (Pok. 478)
Notes: {1} Frequently ngrah with the intensive prefix n-.

ngridhem {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to get angry, exited, be in heat’
Present: ngridhem (1sr); Aorist: (u) ngridh (1sr); Part.: ngridhur / ngridhun
PAlb. *(-)greδ- < QIE *gwredh-
Alb. gërthas [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to cry’ (AE 180)
PIE *gwr-edh- ‘to cry, shout’ (Pok. 478)
Notes: {1} Alb. intensive formation with the prefix n-. The raising of e > i is determined by Alb. paradigm. {2} From PAlb. griδ-(ati-). Enlarged formation with the Alb. suffix -as/t.

ndal {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to halt, stop’
Present: ndal; Aorist: ndala; Part.: ndalë
PAlb. * ̊dalg- < QIE *dlh1egh-o- {1}
Alb. dalë [adv] (t) ‘slowly’; ngadalë [adv] (tg) {4} ‘slowly’; dale ‘halt!’ [interjection] (t) {3}; ndal [interjection] (tg) ‘halt!’ (AE 120)
PIE *dlh1gh- ‘to halt, to (come to a) stop’ _?_ (Pok. 197)
W. dal ‘to halt’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, dolh1(e)gh-o- is also possible. {2} From -n-dalg- with the Alb. intensive prefix (a)n- < -h2en. {3} Frozen form of the 2s imperative from the non-prefixed verbal stem. {4} A compound of dalë with ngah ’run, go (quickly)’.

gjanj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to find’
Present: gjej {2}, gjendem (1sr) {3}; Aorist: gjeta {4}; Part.: gjetë (tg) {5}; gjendur / gjendun {6}
PAlb. *gadn(i)- < QIE *ghṇd-n(i)o- (AE 185)
PIE *ghe-(n-)d- ‘to catch, grasp’ (Pok. 437)
Lat. prehendo̅ ‘to catch (hold)’
Go. bigitan ‘to find’
Notes: {1}Buz. {2} With raising of the root vowel under the influence of the non-active paradigm. {3} From the pres.part. ghend-(e)nt-. {4} From the perf. part. ghəd-to-. {5} Original verbal adjective resp. perf. part. {6} Original pres. part.

gjerb {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to sip, lap’
Present: gjerb; Aorist: gjerba; Part.: gjerbur / gjerbë, gjerbun
PAlb. *śarbei- < QIE *sorbh-eie- (AE 187)
PIE *serbh- ‘to sip, lap’ (Pok. 1001)
Lat. sorbeo̅ ‘to sip, lap’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root.

gjuoj {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to drive (quickly), chase’
Present: gjuaj / gju(e)j; Aorist: gjuajta / gju(e)jta; Part.: gjuajtur / gju(e)jtë
PAlb. *śa̅gn- < QIE *seh2G-no- {1}
Alb. përgjoj [verb] (tg) ‘to listen, eavesdrop’ (AE 191)
PIE *seh2G- ‘to trace (out), track’ (Pok. 876)
Lat. sa̅gio̅ ‘acute sentire, to feel’
Notes: {1} Phonetically, seh2G-mi is also possible. {2}Buz. from *ȥ̌oN.

harr {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to weed (out), prune, rid of branches’
Present: harr; Aorist: harra; Part.: harrë
PAlb. *harei- < QIE *sKor(H)-eie- (AE 196)
PIE *(s)Ker(H)- ‘to cut (off)’ (Pok. 938)
Gr. κείρω ‘to cut’
OIc. skera ‘to cut’
Notes: {1} With expressive hard -r̄.

h(j)edh [verb] (tg) ‘to throw; shoot’
Present: h(j)edh; Aorist: hodha; Part.: hedhur / hedhë, hedhun
PAlb. *heδ- < QIE *sKed-o-; sKe̅d- (aor.) (AE 197)
PIE *sKed- ‘to throw; shoot’ _?_
OE sce̅otan ‘to shoot, sling’ {1}
Notes: {1} Related only indirectly.

jam {1} [verb] (tg) ‘(I) am’
Present: 1s. jam, 2s. je {2}, 3s. është / ã(n)shtë {3}{4}
PAlb. *emm < QIE *h1es-mi (AE 207)
PIE *h1es- ‘to be’ (Pok. 340)
Skt. ásmi ‘to be’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, which occurs only in the present and in the tempora and modi which have been derived from present stem. {2} Beside the conjunctive 2sp (të) jesh < h1es-s(i). {3} From h2en h1esti. {4} 1s imperfect jeshë < h1es-m.

kall [verb] (tg) ‘to stick (on, into), put (up); thrust; instigate’
Present: kall; Aorist: kalla; Part.: kallurë / kallë, kallunë
PAlb. *kalei- < QIE *kolH-eie-
Alb. këllas [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to stick (on, into), put (up); thrust; instigate’; kalloj [verb] (tg) ‘to kindle’ (AE 210)
PIE *kelH-< ‘to prick, jab (into); thrust (into)’ (Pok. 545)
Lith. kálti ‘to strike, forge’; Russ. kolótь ‘to prick, jab, hoe, hack’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement in -as.

kam {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to have’
Present: kam
PAlb. *kamp- < QIE *kh2-(e)n-p- {1} (AE 212)
PIE *k(e)h2p- ‘to catch, grasp; seize, get hold of’ (Pok. 527)
Latv. kàmpt ‘to catch, seize’
Notes: {1} Or kh2p-mi?. {2} Suppletive verb, which occurs only in the present and in the tempora and modi which are based on it. The paradigm of kam has been strongly influenced by that of jam ‘to be’.

kap [verb] (tg) ‘to catch, grasp; seize, get hold of’
Present: kap; Aorist: kapa; Part.: kapë (tg), kapur / kapun
PAlb. *kap- < QIE *kh2p-(i)o- (AE 212)
PIE *k(e)h2p- ‘to catch, grasp; seize, get hold of’ (Pok. 527)
Gr. κάπτω ‘to snap’
Lat. capio̅ ‘to take, seize’

kep {1} [verb] (g) ‘to hew; chisel; sew, stich’
Present: kep; Aorist: kepa; Part.: kepë
PAlb. *kapei- < QIE *kop(H)-eie-
Alb. shkep [verb] (tg) ‘to hew; chisel; sew, stich’ {2}; qep [verb] (tg) ‘to sew, stich’ (AE 216)
PIE *(s)kep(H)- ‘to cut (off), split’ (Pok. 213)
Gr. κόπτω ‘to strike, cut’
Lith. kapóti ‘to hack, strike, cut’
Notes: {1} Dial. variant of qep, with umlaut. {2} Beside shqep; Alb. formation with the intensive prefix sh-.

tkurr {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to contract, draw together, shrink up’
Present: tkurr, tkurrem (1sr); Aorist: tkurra, u tkurra (1sr); Part.: tkurrë
PAlb. *kurn- {1} < QIE *kur-no-
Alb. kurriz [m] (tg) ‘back’; k(ë)rrus [verb] (tg) ‘to bend’ {3} (AE 220)
PIE *kur- ‘to turn, bend’ (Pok. 935)
Gr. κυρτός ‘crooked, bent’
Lat. curvus ‘bent, curved’
Notes: {1} Old nominal basis, from which other denominative formations have been derived. {2} With the Alb. prefix t(ə)-kur̄. {3} Unclear formation.

korr {2} [m] (tg) ‘to cut with a sicle, to harvest, reap’
Present: korr (tg), kuarr / kuor(r) {3}; Aorist: korra; Part.: korrë
PAlb. *ka̅r- {1} < QIE *kos-ro-
Alb. kuar / ku(e)r [m] ‘measure, suitable moment, time’ {4}; korrë [f] (tg) ‘harvest, crop’ (AE 222)
PIE *Kes- ‘to comb, shear, clip’ _?_ (Pok. 585)
South Slav. kosorъ ‘sicle, scythe’ ??
Notes: {1} < *kasr-; original nominal basis for further denominative formations. {2} With ‘hardening’ of the auslaut. {3}Buz. {4} Deverbative formation. Older Buz. kuor(r).

lag [verb] (tg) ‘to wet, moisten, water’
Present: lag; Aorist: laga; Part.: lagë (tg), lagur / lagun
PAlb. *(u)lag- < QIE *ul̥Hg- {1}
Alb. lagë [f] (tg) ‘waters’ {2}; l(ë)gatë [f] (tg) {3} ‘morass, bog, puddle, pool’ (AE 229)
PIE *uelK-, uelHK-? ‘wet, moist’ (Pok. 1145)
Lith. vìlgyti ‘to wet, moisten, water’; vìlgti ‘to become moist, wet’; Latv. vil̂gt ‘to become moist, wet’
Notes: {1} Possibly, original *ulog-. {2} Singulare tantum. {3} Collective formation in -at(ë).

laj [verb] (tg) ‘to wash’
Present: laj; Aorist: lava; Part.: larë / la(m)
PAlb. *lau- < QIE *lou-o-
Alb. lajkë [f] (tg) ‘flatteries’ (AE 230)
PIE *lh3eu- ‘to wash’ (Pok. 692)
Lat. lavo̅ ‘to wash’

leh {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to bark, yap’
Present: leh (2/3s); Aorist: lehu (3s); Part.: lehë (tg), lehur / lehun
PAlb. *lah- < QIE *lh2-ske/o- (AE 235)
PIE *leh2- {1} (Pok. 650)
Gr. λάσκω ‘to cry, roar’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} Occurs almost exclusively in the 2nd and 3d person, the -a- of which has usually been subject to umlaut.

lej [verb] (tg) ‘to be born, to rise’
Present: lej; Aorist: leva; Part.: lerë / le(m), lenë, letë
PAlb. *(a)lei- < QIE *h2l-ei- (AE 235)
PIE *h2el- ‘to grow, feed, live on’ (Pok. 26)
Lat. alo̅ ‘to nourish, bring up (child)’
Bret. ala ‘to bear, give birth’

lë {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to let, leave (behind), allow, quit’
Present: lë / lã; Aorist: lashë {2} (tg), lae (g), la (2s) {3} (tg); Part.: lënë / lãnë
PAlb. *ladn- < QIE *lh1d-no- (AE 239)
PIE *leh1(i)-d- ‘to leave (behind), let’ (Pok. 666)
Go. letan ‘to let’
Notes: {1} From Alb. laN > laN. {2} Rebuilt after dhashë ‘I gave’. {3} [la(:)], from (Buz.) lae.

llap {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to sip, lap, swallow, eat greedily’
Present: llap; Aorist: llapë
PAlb. *lap- < QIE *lap-o-
Alb. llup [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to sip, lap, swallow, eat greedily’; lap [verb] ‘to lick (water)’ (tg); lëpij [verb] (tg) {4} ‘to lick (up)’ (AE 242)
PIE *lh2p-, lap- {1} ‘to lick, lap’ (Pok. 651)
Gr. λάπτω ‘to sip, lap’
Arm. lap‘em ‘to lick’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} With ‘hardening’ of the anlaut for expressive reasons. {3} From Alb. ɫop (?) < *leh2p-. {4} Rebuilt after pi(j) ‘to drink’.

lidh [verb] (tg) ‘to bind, tie’
Present: lidh; Aorist: lidha; Part.: lidhë (tg), lidhur / lidhun
PAlb. *(e)liδ- < QIE *(h1e-)liǵ- (AE 242)
PIE *leiǵ- ‘to bind, tie’ (Pok. 668)
Lat. ligo̅ ‘to bind, tie’

lind {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to be born, to rise, to arise’
Present: lind; Aorist: linda; Part.: lindë (tg), lindur / lindun
PAlb. *(a)liienT- < QIE *h2l-(e)i-ent- {1} (AE 243)
PIE *h2el- ‘to grow, feed’ _?_ (Pok. 26)
Notes: {1} Possibly, an original present participle. {2} From Alb. lėnT-.

lodh [verb] (tg) ‘to tire, fatigue, harass’
Present: lodh; Aorist: lodha; Part.: lodhë (tg), lodhur / lodhun
PAlb. *le̅δ- < QIE *leh1d-o- (AE 244)
PIE *leh1(i)-d- ‘leave (behind)’ (Pok. 666)
Gr. (Hes.) ληδει̃ν . κοπια̃ν

lyp [verb] (tg) ‘to beg, ask alms, plead, coax, need’
Present: lyp; Aorist: lypa; Part.: lypë (tg), lypur / lypun
PAlb. *luPi- < QIE *lubh-io/ei- (AE 248)
PIE *leubh- ‘to crave for, desire, request’ (Pok. 683)
Skt. lúbhyati ‘to feel a strong desire’

lus [verb] (tg) ‘to beg, pray, request’
Present: lus, lut (2/3s); Aorist: luta; Part.: lutë (tg), lutur / lutun
PAlb. *luti- < QIE *luT-io- (AE 248)
PIE *leuT- _?_ {1} (Pok. 683)
Lat. laudo̅ ‘to praise’
Go. liuÞon ‘to sing’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} [MdV] I see no onomatopoeic aspect to this root.

maj [verb] (tg) ‘to fatten, fat’
Present: maj (tg), mãj (g), man (2/3s) (tg); Aorist: majta (tg), mana (g); Part.: majtur / majë, majtun
PAlb. *maϑ(e)n- {1} < QIE *mh2sd-(e)n-, məsd-(e)n-
Alb. majm [verb] (tg) ‘to fatten, fat’ (AE 251)
PIE *mh2sd-, məsd-? ‘to fatten, fat’ _+_ (Pok. 695)
Skt. médana- ‘fattening’
Notes: {1} The basis for further denominative formations.

marr [verb] (tg) ‘to take, set off, receive’
Present: marr; Aorist: mora; Part.: marrë
PAlb. *mar(en)- < QIE *mr̥h2-V/en-; me̅rh2- (aor.) (AE 257)
PIE *merh2- ‘to pack (up)’ _?_ (Pok. 735)
Skt. (prá) mr̥ṇa ‘pack (up)!’ ??
Notes: {1} [AL/MdV] The Skt. word belongs to a root meaning ‘to crush’, so that a connection with Alb. marr seems unlikely. The connection with Greek meíromai < PIE *smer-, which has been proposed by others, seems more promising; cf. LIV2, p. 570.

mas [verb] (tg) ‘to measure’
Present: mas, mat (2/3s); Aorist: mata; Part.: matë (tg), matur / matun
PAlb. *mati- < QIE *mh1t-io-
Alb. matë [f] (tg) {1} ‘measure’ (AE 258)
PIE *meh1-(t-) ‘to measure’ (Pok. 703)
Skt. mitá- ‘measured’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. mata̅.

mbledh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to gather, collect, assemble’
Present: mbledh; Aorist: mblodha; Part.: mbledhë (tg), mbledhur / mbledhun
PAlb. * ̊leδ- < QIE *leǵ-o-; le̅ǵ- (aor.)
Alb. zgjedh [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to choose, select, pick’ (AE 261)
PIE *leǵ- ‘to gather, collect, assemble’ (Pok. 658)
Gr. λέγω ‘to gather, collect’
Lat. lego̅ ‘to collect, glean, pick up’
Notes: {1} Prefixed formation with mb(ë)-. {2} Older dial. (t) zg(ë)ledh.

mbush {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to fill, stuff’
Present: mbush; Aorist: mbusha; Part.: mbushë, mbushur, mbushun
PAlb. * ̊bu(n)ś- < QIE *bhu(n)s-o {1} (AE 262)
PIE *bheu-(s-) ‘to blow up, puff out, swell’ (Pok. 101)
Gr. βύνω ‘to cram, clutter’; βύω ‘to cram, clutter’
Notes: {1} Possibly, an original nasal present. {2} Prefixed formation in mb(ë)-.

mbys {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to drown, sink, wreck, throttle’
Present: mbys, mbyt (2/3s); Aorist: mbyta; Part.: mbytë {3} (tg), mbytur / mbytun
PAlb. * ̊pi̅ti- < QIE *pih3t-io- {1} (AE 262)
PIE *peh3-i- ‘to drink’ (Pok. 840)
Skt. pi̅tá- ‘(having) drunk’
Notes: {1} From *pih3-to-. {2} With the prefix mb(ë)- {3} < *̥pih3-to-.

mek [verb] (tg) ‘to bleat, stammer’
Present: mek, mekem (1sp); Aorist: (u) mek (1sp); Part.: mekë (tg), mekur / mekun
PAlb. *mek-
Alb. mekërij [verb] (t) {2} ‘to bleat’ (AE 264)
PIE *mek-? {1} ‘to bleat’ (Pok. 715)
Lith. meknénti ‘to bleat’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} Deverbative enlargement in -ërí-.

mënd [verb] (tg) ‘to suckle, nurse, to join a suckling young animal with its mother or with another animal’
Present: mënd / mãj; Aorist: mënda / mana; Part.: mëndur / mã
PAlb. *mand- < QIE *mh2-n-d-, mh2d-(e)nt-
Alb. mëz / mãz [m] ‘foal, filly’ (AE 265)
PIE *meh2d- _?_ (Pok. 694)
Lat. madeo̅ ‘to be humid, imbued with’
Skt. mádati ‘to be drunk’
Notes: {1} From *mh2nd-io- or *mh2d(e)nT-io-.

bluaj [verb] (tg) ‘to grind’
Present: bluaj / blu(e)j; Aorist: blova (tg), bluajta / blu(e)jta; Part.: bluar / blu(e)
PAlb. *mle̅(n-) < QIE *mleh1-(no-) {1} (AE 268)
PIE *melh1- ‘to crush, grind’ (Pok. 716)
OCS mlětь ‘to grind’
Notes: {1} *mleh1u-o- is also possible.

mjel [verb] (tg) ‘to milk’
Present: mjel; Aorist: mola; Part.: mjelë (tg), mjelur / mjelun
PAlb. *(a)mell- < QIE *h2melǵ-o; h2me̅lǵ- (aor.) {1} (AE 273)
PIE *h2melǵ- ‘to milk’ (Pok. 722)
Gr. ἀμέλγω ‘to milk’
Notes: {1} [MdV} The absence of any reflex of *ǵ is problematic.

mund [verb] (tg) ‘can, may, have power, defeat’
Present: mund / mun(i) {1}; Aorist: munda / muna; Part.: mundur / munë
PAlb. *ma̅K(e)nT- {2} < QIE *meh2K-(e)nt- (AE 281)
PIE *meh2K- ‘can, to be able (to do)’ (Pok. 695)
Lith. mokė́ti ‘to be able’; Go. magan ‘to be able, have power’; OCS mogǫ ‘to be able’
Notes: {1} Buz., Budi mund. {2}[MdV] The assumption that the velar consonant would disappear in this position is not supported by other evidence.

ndej {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to strech (out)’
Present: ndej / ndẽj; Aorist: ndẽjta (g), ndeva (tg), ndera / ndẽna; Part.: nderë / ndẽjtun, ndẽ(m)
PAlb. * ̊teni- < QIE *ten-io- (AE 284)
PIE *ten- ‘to hammer out, strech (out)’ (Pok. 1065)
Gr. τείνω ‘to strech out’
Notes: {1} With the prefix (a)n-.

ndez {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to light, kindle’
Present: ndez; Aorist: ndeza; Part.: ndezë (tg), ndezur / ndezun
PAlb. * ̊dadei < QIE *dhogwh-eie-
Alb. dhez [verb] (tg) ‘to light, kindle’ {2} (AE 286)
PIE *dhegwh- ‘to burn’ (Pok. 240)
Skt. da̅háyati ‘to light, kindle’
Notes: {1} With the prefix (a)n-. {2} Possibly, from Alb. *və-dez with the prefix v(ë)-.

ndjek {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to run after, follow, pursue, dog’
Present: ndjek; Aorist: ndoqa; Part.: ndjekur / ndjekë, ndjekun
PAlb. * ̊tek- < QIE *tek(w)-o-; ̊te̅k(w)- (aor.) (AE 288)
PIE *tek(w)- ‘to run’ (Pok. 1059)
Lith. tekė́ti ‘to run, flow’; Skt. tákti ‘to hasten’
Notes: {1} Prefixed formation in (a)n-.

ndoh {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to make dirty, spoil, pollute’
Present: ndoh, ndo(h)t (t) {3}; Aorist: ndoha, ndo(h)ta (t); Part.: ndohtël, ndo(h)tur (t)
PAlb. * ̊de̅-(h) < QIE *hed-eh1- {1}
Alb. ndo(h)t [adv] {4} (t) ‘odiously, bad’ (AE 290)
PIE *hed- ‘to shit’ (Pok. 423)
Notes: {1} Alb. formation. {2} Intensive formation with the prefix (a)n-. {3} Occurs in Gheg only in the oldest literature. {4} Only attested in certain expressions.

nduk {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to draw (out), pull up, pluck’
Present: nduk; Aorist: nduka; Part.: ndukur / ndukë, ndukun
PAlb. * ̊duk- < QIE *duk
Alb. zhduk [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to hide, conceal, bump off’ (AE 291)
PIE *deuk- ‘to draw’ (Pok. 220)
Go. tiuhan ‘to draw’
Notes: {1} Intensive formation with the Alb. prefix (a)n-. {2} Alb. formation with the privative prefix zh/xh/ç-.

ngah {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to run, haste(n), come off’
Present: ngah; Aorist: ngaha; Part.: ngahur / nga(m)
PAlb. *ga-h < QIE *gwm̥-ske/o- (AE 295)
PIE *gwem- ‘to go, come’ (Pok. 463)
Gr. βάσκε ‘go!’
Skt. gácchati ‘to go’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the intensive prefix (a)n-.

ngre {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to rise (from the ground), raise, build up’
Present: ngre; Aorist: ngrita {2}; Part.: ngritë (tg), ngritur / ngritun
PAlb. * ̊kre(i/h)- < QIE *ḱreh1-(i/o/sḱo-); ̊ḱr(h1)i(h1)-to- (part.)
Alb. ngreh [verb] (tg) ‘to set, raise, build up’ [Present: ngreh; Aorist: ngreha; Part.: ngrehë (tg), ngrehur / ngrehun]; shkreh [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to cancel, discharge, fire (a gun)’ (AE 296)
PIE *ḱerh1-, ḱreh1- ‘to grow (up)’ (Pok. 577)
Lat. cre̅sco̅ ‘to grow’; creo̅ ‘to create’
Notes: {1} Prefixed with Alb. (a)n-. {2} From the participle stem. {3} Alb. formation with the prefix sh-.

hëngra {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to eat’
Aorist: hëngra / hãngra; Part.: ngrënë / ngrãnë, hãngër {2}
PAlb. * ̊gur- < QIE *gwr̥H-; gwr̥H-no- (part.)
Alb. ãngurrë [f] (g) ‘bowels, entrails, viscera’; gurmaz [m] (tg) ‘gullet, larynx, pharynx’ (AE 297)
PIE *gwerH- ‘to swallow’ (Pok. 474)
Skt. giráti ‘to swallow’
Notes: {1} From Alb. ha-n-gura: suppletive verb, which occurs only in the aorist, the participle and in the tempora and modi based on these stems. {2} From the aorist stem.

ngroh [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to warm, heat’
Present: ngroh; Aorist: ngroha; Part.: ngrohur / ngrohë, ngrohun
PAlb. * ̊gre̅-(h) < QIE *gwhr-eh1- (AE 298)
PIE *gwher- ‘warm, hot’ (Pok. 493)
OCS grěti ‘to warm’
Notes: {1} The form may have entered the class of Alb. inchoatives in -sk-. The anlaut points to an Alb. formation with the prefix (a)n-.

gjesh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to gird’
Present: (n)gjesh; Aorist: (n)gjesha; Part.: (n)gjeshur / (n)gjeshë, (n)gjeshun
PAlb. *(V)io̅ś- (AE 299)
PIE *Hieh3s- ‘to gird’ (Pok. 513)
Gr. ζώvvυμι ‘to gird’
OCS po-jasati ‘to gird’
Notes: {1} Frequently occurs with the intensive prefix Alb. (a)n-.

ngjesh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to press on, compress, knead (dough)’
Present: ngjesh; Aorist: ngjesha; Part.: ngjeshur / ngjeshë, ngjeshun
PAlb. * ̊gneś- < QIE *gne(u)s- (AE 300)
PIE *gen- ‘to compress’ (Pok. 370)
OCS gnesti ‘to press on’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the intensive prefix (a)n-.

ngjirem {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to hoarsen’
Present: ngjir(r)em (1sr) {2}, qirrem, (g) kirrem {3} (g); Aorist: (u) ngjir(r)a (1sr); Part.: ngjir(r)ur / ngjir(r)ë, ngjir(r)un
PAlb. * ̊ker- < QIE *Ker-
Alb. çjerr [verb] (tg) {4} ‘to hoarsen, to get hoarsened’ (AE 300)
PIE *(s)Ker- {5} (Pok. 567)
Lat. cro̅cio̅ ‘to croak’
Notes: {1) Alb. formation with the prefix (a)n-. {2} With ‘hardening’ of the vibrant for expressive reasons. {3} Non-prefixed form. {4} From Alb. d(ə)-Ker-. {5} Onomatopoeic root for coarse, sharp tones.

nxjerr {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to draw/pull out, bring forth, throw out’
Present: nxjerr {2}; Aorist: nxorra; Part.: nxjerrë
PAlb. * ̊ϑer- {3} < QIE *ḱer-o-; ḱe̅r- (aor.) (AE 303)
PIE *ḱer(h1)- ‘to grow (on)’ (Pok. 577)
Arm. serem ‘to bring forth’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the intensive prefix (a)n-. {2} With ‘hardening’ of the stem auslaut. {3} [MdV] This etymology does not account for nx-, cf. AE 304: PIE *k-́ normally yields th-, which does not further palatalize to *s-.

njoh [verb] (tg) ‘to know, recognize’
Present: njoh, njeh (2/3s); Aorist: njoha; Part.: njohë (tg), njohur / njohun
PAlb. *gno̅̆h < QIE *ǵneh3-ske/o- (AE 305)
PIE *ǵenh3-, ǵneh3- ‘to know’ (Pok. 376)
Lat. (g)no̅sco̅ ‘to know, recognize’

pashë {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to watch, look (at), observe’
Aorist: pashë, pae (2s) {2}, pe (2s) {3}, pa; Part. parë / panë {4}, patë, pa(m)
PAlb. *pa ̊ < QIE *pH ̊; pH-to/no- (ptc.) (AE 314)
PIE *peH2-(i-) ‘to herd, watch over’ _?_ (Pok. 839)
Skt. pa̅́ti- ‘to herd, watch (over)’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, which occurs in the participle and the aorist and as in the tempora and modi derived from these stems. {2} Buz. and the dialects of Greece and South Italy. {3} [pe:] from Alb. (Buz.) pae. {4}Buz.

pata {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to have, to be in possession of smth.’
Aorist: pata; Part.: pasur / pasë
PAlb. *pat(i)- < QIE *poti-; potio- (part.)
Alb. pasë [f] (tg) {2} ‘property, possession, tenure’ (AE 313)
PIE *poti-o- ‘to be in possession of smth.’ (Pok. 842)
Lat. potior ‘to have a share in, take possession of’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, which occurs in the participle and the aorist, as well as in the tempora and modi derived from these stems. {2} From patia̅.

(për)kul {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to bend, crouch, bow’
Present: përkul (tg), kulet (3sr/p) (g); Aorist: përkula; Part.: përkulë (tg), përkulur / përkulun
PAlb. * ̊kull- < QIE *kwl̥-io/no- (AE 317)
PIE *kwel- ‘to revolve, twist’ (Pok. 639)
Notes: {1} Occurs almost exclusively in prefixed form.

ul [verb] (tg) ‘to get down, bring down’
Present: ul; Aorist: ula; Part.: ulë (tg), ulur / ulun
PAlb. *ull- < QIE *ul̥-io- (AE 317)
PIE *uel- ‘to revolve, twist’ (Pok. 1140)

përtyp {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to chew, masticate’
Present: përtyp; Aorist: përtypa; Part.: përtypur / përtypë, përtypun
PAlb. * ̊tupi- < QIE *tup-io/ei-
Alb. shtyp [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to compress, crush, squash’ (AE 317)
PIE *(s)teu-p- ‘to push, beat’ (Pok. 1034)
Gr. τύππω ‘to strike, beat’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix për-. The root vowel has undergone umlaut. {2} Alb. formation with the prefix sh-.

pi [verb] (tg) ‘to drink’
Present: pi; Aorist: piva; Part.: pirë / pitë, pi(m), pinë {1}
PAlb. *pib- < QIE *pi-ph3-o (AE 318)
PIE *peh3(i-) ‘to drink’ (Pok. 839)
Lat. bibo̅ ‘to drink’
Skt. píbati ‘to drink’
Notes: {1} Buz.

pjek [verb] (tg) ‘to bake, roast’
Present: pjek; Aorist: poqa; Part.: pjekur / pjekë, pjekun
PAlb. *pek- < QIE *pekw-o-; pe̅kw- (aor.)
Alb. ã (AE 322)
PIE *pekw- ‘to cook’ (Pok. 798)
Skt. pácati ‘to roast’

pjell [verb] (tg) ‘to bring forth young (beasts), cub, whelp, calve, foal’
Present: pjell; Aorist: polla; Part.: pjellë (tg), pjellur / pjellun;
PAlb. *pel- < QIE *pel(H)-o-; pe̅l(H)- (aor.)
Alb. mbjell [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to sow, plant’ (AE 322)
PIE *pel(H)- ‘to push’ (Pok. 801)
Lat. pello̅ ‘to push’
Notes: {1} With the prefix (a)n-.

pjerdh [verb] (tg) ‘to fart, poop’
Present: pjerdh; Aorist: pordha; Part.: pjerdhë (tg), pjerdhur / pjerdhun
PAlb. *perδ- < QIE *perd-o-; pe̅rd- (aor.)
Alb. pordhë [f] (tg) {1} ‘fart, wind’ (AE 323)
PIE *perd- ‘to fart, poop’ (Pok. 819)
Gr. πέρδω ‘to fart, poop’
Skt. párdate ‘to fart, poop’
Notes: {1} Deverbative formation from PAlb pe̅rδa̅.

plah [m] (g) ‘to cover (over)’
Present: plah/f; Aorist: plaha; Part.: plahë
PAlb. *plah- < QIE *pl̥H-ske/o-
Alb. plaf/h [m] (tg) ‘bed cover, (woollen) blanket’; pëlhurë [f] (tg) {1} ‘woven/linen fabric, texture’ (AE 323)
PIE *pel-(H/ḱ-) ‘to cover, mask, hide’ (Pok. 803)
Go. filhan ‘to hide’; ON fela ‘to hide’
Notes: {1} Buz. plehurë.

plas [verb] (tg) ‘to crack, burst, break through’
Present: plas; Aorist: plasa; Part.: plasur / plasë, plasun
PAlb. *plati- < QIE *pl̥h1ḱ-io- {1}
Alb. pël(l)cas [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to crack, burst, break through’; plasë [f] (tg) {3} ‘chasm, crack’; ples [f] (g) {4} ‘genitals of the she-mule’ (AE 324)
PIE *pleh1ḱ- ‘to tear, rend’ (Pok. 835)
Lith. plė́šti ‘to burst, crack’; Latv. plêst ‘to tear’
Notes: {1} Alb. denominative formation. {2} From pl̥h1ḱ-(-as), Alb. enlargement in -as. {3} Possibly, from PAlb. *platia̅. {4} With umlaut of the root vowel.

prej [verb] (tg) ‘to hew, cut, chop’
Present: prej; Aorist: preva; Part.: prerë / pre(m), prenë
PAlb. *prei- < QIE *pr-ei-
Alb. pres [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to cut’ (AE 332)
PIE *per- ‘to strike, beat’ _?_ (Pok. 818)
Lith. per̃ti ‘to strike, beat, to hit’
Notes: {1} From Alb. *pre- as an enlargement after the Alb. verbs in -(a)s.

prish [verb] (tg) ‘to destroy’
Present: prish; Aorist: prisha; Part.: prishur / prishë, prishun
PAlb. *priś- < QIE *pr-(e)s- (AE 333)
PIE *per- ‘to strike, beat’ (Pok. 818)
Lat. premo̅ {1} ‘to press on’
Arm. hari {2} ‘to strike, beat’
Notes: {1} The "aor." stem pressi. {2} Aor.

prura {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to bring (along), lead (up/forward)’
Aorist: prura / pruna; Part.: prurë / pru(m), prunë
PAlb. *p(e)re̅-(n-) < QIE *p(e)r-eh1- {1} (AE 334)
PIE *per- ‘to bear, lead across’ (Pok. 816)
Gr. περάω ‘to penetrate, pierce’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation. {2} From Alb. pron-; suppletive verb, occurring in aorist and (its) part. as well as in the tempora and modi built on those stems.

puth [verb] (tg) ‘to kiss’
Present: puth; Aorist: putha; Part.: puthur / puthë, puthun
PAlb. *puϑ- {2} < QIE *b(h)us-d(h)- (AE 336)
PIE *b(h)u(s)- {1} ‘lip, kiss’ (Pok. 103)
MoHG {3} bussen ‘to kiss’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} With dissimilated anlaut. {3} Bav., Tyr.

kla(n)j [verb] (tg) ‘to cry, weep, shed tears, sob’
Present: kla(n)j (tg) {1}, qaj (t); Aorist: klava, qava; Part.: klarë, qarë / klanë {2}, klatë {2}, qa(m)
PAlb. *klai- < QIE *kl(e)h2-io- (AE 337)
PIE *kelh2- ‘to cry’ (Pok. 548)
Gr. κλαίω {3} ‘to weep, sob’
Notes: {1} In the oldest Gheg literature and dialectal Tosk. {2} Buz. {3} Only indirectly cognate.

qall [verb] (t) ‘to mock, scoff’
Present: qall(ënj), qall (2/3s); Aorist: qalla; Part.: qallurë
PAlb. *ki(i)al- < QIE *ki(i)-ol-, kih2-e/ol- {2}
Alb. qell [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to lead (forward), conduct, take away, throw’ (AE 338)
PIE *kei-(h2)- ‘to put, set in motion’ (Pok. 538)
Notes: {1} Possibly, an original nominal formation. {2} With umlaut of the root vowel.

qas [verb] (tg) ‘to approach, draw near, receive (at home), go away’
Present: qas; Aorist: qasa; Part.: qasur / qasë, qasun
PAlb. *ki(i)ati- < QIE *kih2(e)t-io- (AE 339)
PIE *kei-(h2-) ‘to put, set in motion’ (Pok. 538)
Gr. (Hes.) κίατο . ἐκινει̃το

qeth {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to cut (hair)’
Present: qeth; Aorist: qetha; Part.: qethur / qethë, qethun
PAlb. *kaiδ- < QIE *kh2eid-, keh2id- (AE 340)
PIE *(s)k(e)h2ei-d/t- (Pok. 917)
Lat. caedo̅ ‘to cut, hew, lop, fell’
Skt. khidáti ‘to tear, press’
Notes: {1} With assimilation of the stem auslaut.

kij [verb] (g) ‘to cut, hew, weed’
Present: kij; Aorist: kiva; Part.: ki(m)
PAlb. *ki̅̆- < QIE *kh2iio-
Alb. qij [verb] (tg) ‘to cut, hew, fuck’ (AE 340)
PIE *(s)keh2i-, (s)keih2- ‘to beat, cuff, poke’ (Pok. 917)
Lat. caio̅ ‘to cut, hew’

qoj [verb] (g) ‘to wake up, arouse, stir up’
Present: qoj; Aorist: qova; Part.: qu(e), quem
PAlb. *kiie̅- < QIE *ki(i)-eh1-
Alb. çoj [verb] (tg) ‘to awaken, send, carry on, dispatch, stir up’ {1} (AE 340)
PIE *kei- ‘to put, set in motion’ (Pok. 538)
Lat. cieo̅ ‘to put, set in motion’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix t/d(ë)-.

ra ̊ {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to fall (down), go (down), tumble, drop, strike, hit’
Aorist: rashë (t), rae (g) {2}, re (2s) {3}, ra (3s) (tg); Part.: rënë / ra(m), ratë
PAlb. *(a)rau-(ś-) < QIE *h3rou-(s-)
Alb. resh [verb 3sp] (tg) ‘to fall (of rain, snow, etc.)’ (AE 343)
PIE *h3rou-(s-) ‘to haste(n), rush (at)?’ (Pok. 331)
Gr. ὀρούω ‘to plunge into, to dash, run (at)’
Notes: {1} Suppletive verb, occurring in the aorist and the participle and in the tempora and modi built on those stems {2} Buz. {3} [re:], contracted from older (Buz.) rae.

kluoj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to call, name’
Present: kluoj / kluanj / quaj / qu(e)j; Aorist: kluojta / kluajta / quajta / qu(e)jta; Part.: kluojtunë / kluajturë / quajtur / qu(e)jtun ??
PAlb. *kluue̅- < QIE *ḱlu(H)-eh1- (AE 342)
PIE *ḱleu(H)- ‘to hear’ (Pok. 605)
Lat. clueo̅ ‘to call, name’
Notes: {1} Buz.

regj [verb] (tg) ‘to tan (hides), salt’
Present: regj; Aorist: regja; Part.: regjë (tg), regjur / regjun
PAlb. *(e)reug- < QIE *h1reug- (AE 345)
PIE *h1reu-g- ‘to retch, vomit’ (Pok. 871)
Gr. ἐρεύγομαι ‘to belch, gurk’

rĩ [verb] (g) ‘to moisten, wet’
Present: rĩj, rihem (1sr); Aorist: rĩni (3s); Part.: rĩ, rĩtu(e)
PAlb. *(V)rin(i)- < QIE *Hri-n(i)o- (AE 346)
PIE *Hrei(H)- ‘to flow’ _?_ (Pok. 330)
Skt. riṇa̅́ti ‘to let flow’

rjep [verb] (tg) ‘to flay, skin, peel off, pluck’
Present: rjep; Aorist: ropa; Part.: rjepë (tg), rjepur / rjepun
PAlb. *(e)rep- < QIE *h1rep-o-; h1re̅p- (aor.) (AE 346)
PIE *h1rep- ‘to wrench, strain at, snatch’ (Pok. 865)
Gr. ἐρέπτομαι ‘to pluck’
Lat. rapio̅ ‘to rob, snatch’

ruoj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to watch (over), observe, guard’
Present: ruaj / ruoj, ru(e)j; Aorist: ruajta / ruojta, ru(e)jta; Part.: ruajtur / ruojtunë, ru(e)jtun
PAlb. *(a)ru(u)e̅- < QIE *h2ru-eh1- (AE 347)
PIE *h2reu- ‘to get light, brighten’
Arm. arev ‘sun’
Notes: {1} Buz.

rrah [verb] (tg) ‘to strike, beat, cut down’
Present: rrah; Aorist: rraha; Part.: rrahë (tg), rrahur / rrahun
PAlb. *rah- < QIE *ur̥h1(h)-ske/o- (AE 348)
PIE *ureh1(h)- ‘to strike, beat’ (Pok. 1181)

rras [verb] (tg) ‘to compress, stuff’
Present: rras; Aorist: rrasa; Part.: rrasur / rrasë, rrasun
PAlb. *raT(ś)i- < QIE *ur̥h1(h)-io-
Alb. rrëzoj [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to pull, throw, cut down’ (AE 348)
PIE *ureh1(h)- ‘to strike, beat’ (Pok. 1181)
Gr. ῥάττω {2} ‘to strike, beat’
Notes: {1} Alb. enlargement in -ó-. {2} Only indirectly cognate.

rrjedh [verb] (tg) ‘to flow, stream’
Present: rrjedh; Aorist: rrodha; Part.: rrjedhë (tg), rrjedhur / rrjedhun
PAlb. *reδ- < QIE *sred(h)-o-; sre̅d(h)- (aor.) (AE 352)
PIE *sr-ed(h)- {1} ‘to whirl, bubble, stream’ (Pok. 1001)
Gr. ῥέω {2} ‘to flow, stream’
Notes: {1} Enlargement of ser- ‘to flow’, Pok. 909. {2} Only indirectly cognate.

rri {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to sit down, stand, stay’
Present: rri
PAlb. * ̊ri- < QIE *Hr-i-
Alb. rris [verb] (tg) ‘to bring up (children), grow up, overgrow’ {2} [Present: rris, rrit (2/3s); Aorist: rrita; Part.: rritë (tg), rritur / rritun]; rroj [verb] (tg) ‘to live, exist, last’ {3} [Present: rroj; Aorist {4}: rrova, rrojta; Part.: rruar / rru(e)] (AE 353)
PIE *Hr-ei/eh1- ‘to set/put in motion’ _?_ (Pok. 326)
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix (a)n-. Suppletive verb, occurring only in the present and in tempora and modi derived from the present. {2} PAlb. *̥riti- < qIE *Hri-tio-. An Alb. formation, maybe from an original participle stem Hri-to-. {3} < PAlb. *̥re̅- < qIE *Hreh1-. Alb. formation with the prefix (a)n-. {4} Rare.

sjell [verb] (tg) ‘to bring, turn, dawdle’
Present: sjell; Aorist: solla; Part.: sjellë (tg), sjellur / sjellun
PAlb. *tšel- < QIE *kwel-o-; kwe̅l- (aor.) (AE 354)
PIE *kwel- ‘to turn, twist’ (Pok. 639)
Gr. πέλω ‘to be in motion’

shkrep {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to flash, tone, to strike (till sparks fly off), an idea comes to one’s mind’
Present: shkrep; Aorist: shkrepa; Part.: shkrepë (tg), shkrepur / shkrepun
PAlb. * ̊krep- < QIE *krep- (AE 362)
PIE *ker-p-, krep- {1} ‘to crack, crash’ (Pok. 569)
Lat. crepo̅ ‘to resound, ring, tone’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root. {2} With the prefix sh-.

shosh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to sift, riddle’
Present: shosh; Aorist: shosha; Part.: shoshë (tg), shoshur / shoshun
PAlb. *śe̅ś- < QIE *seh1-sh1(i)o-
Alb. shoshë [f] (tg) ‘sieve, riddle’ (AE 364)
PIE *seh1i- ‘to sift, riddle’ _?_ (Pok. 889)
Gr. (Delph.) σα̃σις ‘sieve’ {2}
Notes: {1} sh- < ś- by regressive assimiliation with the second -ś- of the next syllable. {2} It cannot be excluded that we are dealing with a Gr. loanword.

pall {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to cry, hee-haw’
Present: pall; Aorist: palla; Part.: pallë (tg), pallur / pallun
PAlb. *palei- < QIE *pol-eie-
Alb. shpall [verb] (tg) ‘to announce, proclaim, declare’ {1} (AE 365)
PIE *(s)pel- ‘to speak with a loud voice’ (Pok. 985)
Go. spillon ‘to proclaim’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix sh-.

shpie {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to carry (on), bear, send, lead (across)’
Present: shpie; Aorist: shpura / shpuna {2}; Part.: shpurë, shpënë / shpu(e), shpum {2}
PAlb. * ̊peri- < QIE *per-io- (AE 366)
PIE *per- ‘to bear, lead across, penetrate’ (Pok. 816)
Gr. πείρω ‘to get through, pierce’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix sh-. {2} Reformed analogically after prura ‘id’.

shpoj {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to pierce, prick’
Present: shpoj; Aorist: shpova; Part.: shpuar / shpu(e), shpum
PAlb. * ̊pe̅ri- < QIE *pe̅r-io- (AE 367)
PIE *per- ‘to bear, lead across, penetrate’ (Pok. 816)
Gr. πείρω ‘to get through, pierce’
Notes: {1} With the prefix sh-.

shqerr {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to tear up, excoriate, castrate’
Present: shqerr; Aorist: shqora; Part.: shqerrë
PAlb. * ̊ker- < QIE *ker-o; ke̅r- (AE 369)
PIE *(s)Ker(H)- ‘to cut (off)’ (Pok. 938)
Gr. κείρω ‘to cut (off), shear’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix sh-.

thërras {2} [verb] (tg) ‘to cry’
Present: th(ë)rras; Aorist: thirra; Part.: thirrë
PAlb. *ϑer- < QIE *ḱer-
Alb. çjerr [verb] (tg) {3} ‘to hoarsen’ (AE 369)
PIE *(s)Ker- {1} ‘to cry with a hoarse voice’ (Pok. 567)
Skt. śa̅́ri- ‘kind of bird, Prädigerkrähe’
Notes: {1} Onomatopoeic root for hoarse, sharp tones. {2} Has entered the conjugation of the verbs in -(V)tio-. {3} With the prefix d/t(ə)-.

shtirem [verb] (tg) ‘to feign, simulate’
Present: shtirem (1sr); Aorist: (u) shtira (1sr); Part.: shtirë
PAlb. *śter- < QIE *sterh3-o-
Alb. shtie [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to put in/on, throw, shut’; shtir [verb] (g) {2} ‘to pass over (the river)’ (AE 374)
PIE *ster(h3)- ‘to spread, scatter, bring down’ (Pok. 1029)
Av. star- ‘to spread’
Notes: {1} From PAlb. śteri-, an Alb. formation possibly after bie ‘to strike, beat, fall’. {2} Dialectally restricted lexicalisation with transitive meaning of the Alb. basis shtir-.

shtjell [verb] (tg) ‘to wind up, develop, sling, loosen’
Present: shtjell; Aorist: shtolla; Part.: shtjellë (tg), shtjellur / shtjellun
PAlb. *śtel- < QIE *stel-o-; ste̅l- (aor.)
Alb. mbështjell [verb] (g) {1} ‘to wind up, roll up, wrap up’ (AE 376)
PIE *stel- ‘to set, lay, put, place’ (Pok. 1019)
Gr. στέλλω ‘to arrange, set, lay’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix mbë-.

shtoj [verb] (tg) ‘to add, increase, augment’
Present: shtoj; Aorist: shtova; Part.: shtuar / shtuom {1}, shtu(e), shtu(e)m
PAlb. *śta̅u- < QIE *steh2u-o-, steh2-io-? (AE 378)
PIE *steh2(u)- ‘to stand, set, lay’ (Pok. 1004)
Lith. stóviu ‘to stand, stay’; Latv. stãvet ‘to stand, stay’
Notes: {1} Buz.

shtãj [verb] (g) ‘to be stable, stop’
Present: shtãj / shtãn (2/3s); Aorist: shtana; Part.: shtã
PAlb. *stan- < QIE *sth2-no- {1} (AE 378)
PIE *steh2- ‘to stand, set, lay’ (Pok. 1004)
Arm. stanam ‘arise’
Notes: {1} Possibly an original verbal adjective.

shtrij [verb] (tg) ‘to lay (down), throw (down), strech out’
Present: shtrij / shtrĩj; Aorist: shtriva / shtrĩna; Part.: shtrirë / shtrĩ(m)
PAlb. *śtrin- < QIE *str̥n(e)h3- (AE 378)
PIE *sterh3-, streh3- ‘to spread, scatter, bring down’ (Pok. 1029)
Skt. str̥ṇa̅́ti ‘to strew, scatter’

ik(i) [verb] (tg) ‘to go away’
Present: ik (tg), (h)iki / ikënj; Aorist: (h)ika; Part.: ikur / (h)ikë, (h)ikun
PAlb. *ik- {2} < QIE *h1(e)iK-
Alb. shkoj [verb] (tg) ‘to go (on), go forward’ {1} (AE 379)
PIE *h1ei- ‘to go’ _?_ (Pok. 296)
Notes: {1} Alb., yet old formation with the verbal suffix -o- < *-e̅- < *-eh1 and the intensive prefix sh-: *š(V)-ik-e̅-. {2} [MdV] In Buzuku, the verb possesses some forms without -k: 2s.impv. itë, 2p.impv. itëni, 3s.impf. it(ë). Hence, the older stem seems to have been it-. This might be etymologically connected with the verb ecën ’ to move, walk’.

shtyj [verb] (tg) ‘to push (along), jostle, shove’
Present: shtyj / shtỹj; Aorist: shtyva / shtyra, shtỹna; Part.: shtyrë / shtỹ(m)
PAlb. *śtu(d)ni- < QIE *stu(d)-nio- (AE 379)
PIE *(s)teu-C- ‘to pull, push, strike’ (Pok. 1032)
Go. stautan ‘to strike’

shtroj [verb] (tg) ‘to spread, scatter, lay down’
Present: shtroj; Aorist: shtrova; Part.: shtruar / shtru(e), shtru(e)m
PAlb. *śt(a)re̅- < QIE *str(h3)-eh1- {1}
Alb. shtrofkë [f] (tg) {2} ‘den (of wild beasts), lair, burrow’ (AE 379)
PIE *sterh3- ‘to spread, scatter, floar’ (Pok. 1029)
OCS prostrěti ‘to spread’
Notes: {1} Probably, an Alb. verbal formation. {2} Deverbative formation with the suffix -kë from the aorist stem (Alb. *štrov-kə).

ter [verb] (tg) ‘to dry (up)’
Present: ter; Aorist: tera; Part.: terë (tg), terur / terun
PAlb. *to̅rei- < QIE *tors-eie-
Alb. shter(r) [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to dry up, to run dry’ (AE 384)
PIE *ters- ‘to dry (up)’ (Pok. 1078)
Lat. torreo̅ ‘to dry’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the intensive prefix sh-. Frequently also with ‘hardening’ of the stem auslaut for expressive reasons.

tjerr {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to spin’
Present: tjerr; Aorist: tora; Part.: tjerrë
PAlb. *ter- < QIE *ter(H/K)-o-; te̅r(H/K)- (aor.) (AE 387)
PIE *ter(H)-(K-) ‘to rub, spin’ (Pok. 1071, 1090)
Lat. tero̅ ‘to rub’; torqueo̅ ‘to twist, turn’
Notes: {1} With ‘hardening’ of the stem auslaut.

tredh [verb] (tg) ‘to castrate’
Present: tredh; Aorist: tredha; Part.: tredhë (tg), tredhur / tredhun
PAlb. *treuδ- < QIE *treud-o- (AE 388)
PIE *treu-d- ‘to squeeze, crush, press’ (Pok. 1095)
Lat. trūdo̅ ‘to push, force, press’
Go. usÞriutan ‘to bother, persecute’

ndrydh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to sprain, suppress, withdraw’
Present: ndrydh; Aorist: ndrydha; Part.: ndrydhë (tg), ndrydhur, ndrydhun
PAlb. * ̊truδ- < QIE *trud-(i)o-
Alb. shtrydh [verb] (tg) ‘to squash, press, squeeze’; ndrys [verb] (tg) {2} ‘to massage’ (AE 388)
PIE *treu-d- ‘to squeeze, crush, press’ (Pok. 1095)
OCS truditi ‘to load, plague’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the (a)n-. {2} From ̥trud-io-.

tremb {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to frighten, scare, to get a fright’
Present: tremb / trẽm(b); Aorist: tremba / trẽm(b)a; Part.: trembë, trembur / trẽm(b)ë, trẽm(b)un
PAlb. *trem(b)- < QIE *trem-o- (AE 388)
PIE *trem- ‘to tripp, patter, tremble’ (Pok. 1092)
Lat. tremo̅ ‘to tremble’
Notes: {1} With labial "epenthesis" in stem auslaut.

thaj [verb] (tg) ‘to dry (up)’
Present: thaj; Aorist: thava; Part.: tharë / tha(m)
PAlb. *ϑau-(ni-) {1} (AE 392)
PIE *seh2us-, sh2eus-, h2seus- ‘dry, arid’ _?_ (Pok. 881)
Gr. αὕω to dry (up)
Notes: {1} Only under the assumption of an old regressive dissimilation of the two s.

thek [verb] (tg) ‘to toast, brown, warm one’s feet’
Present: thek; Aorist: theka; Part.: thekë (tg), thekur / thekun
PAlb. *ϑeuk- < QIE *ḱeuk-o- (AE 393)
PIE *ḱeuk- ‘to glow, burn, lighten?’ (Pok. 597)
Skt. śócati ‘to glow, burn, lighten’

ther {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to cut, prick, pierce, slaughter’
Present: ther; Aorist: thera; Part.: therë (tg), therur / therun
PAlb. *tśo̅r- < QIE *ḱe/oh3-ro-
Alb. ther(r)ë [f] (tg) ‘sting, quill, prickle, thorn(-bush)’ (AE 396)
PIE *ḱeh3-(i-) ‘to sharpen, whet’ (Pok. 541)
Arm. sowr ‘sharp’
Notes: {1} Alb. denominative formation.

thom [verb] (tg) ‘to say’
Present: thom (tg), thua / thue (2s) {1}, thotë (tg) (3s); Aorist: thashë (tg), thae (g); Part.: thënë / thãnë {2}
PAlb. *ϑe̅m- < QIE *ḱeh1s-mi; ḱh1s- (aor.); ḱh1s-no- (part.) (AE 399)
PIE *ḱeh1(n)s- ‘to say, instruct, announce’ (Pok. 566)
Skt. śa̅́sti ‘to instruct, advise, command’
Notes: {1} Buz. thuo. {2} Impv. thoshë (tg) < *ḱeh1s-ṃ.

vej [verb] (tg) ‘to weave’
Present: vej (tg), venj (t); Aorist: vejta (tg), jenja (t); Part.: vejtë (tg), vejtur / vejturë
PAlb. *uei- < QIE *h2u-ei- (AE 413)
PIE *h2eu- ‘to weave’ _?_ (Pok. 75)
Skt. váyati ‘to weave’

vesh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to dress, wear’
Present: vesh, vishem (1sr); Aorist: vesha; Part.: veshë (tg), veshur / veshun
PAlb. *uaśei- < QIE *uos-eie- (AE 416)
PIE *ues- ‘to dress’ (Pok. 1172)
Skt. va̅sáyati ‘to dress, clothe’; Go. wasjan ‘to dress’
Notes: {1} With umlaut of the root vowel.

vjedh [verb] (tg) ‘to rob, steal, purloin’
Present: vjedh; Aorist: vodha; Part.: vjedhë (tg), vjedhur / vjedhun
PAlb. *ueδ- < QIE *uedh(H)-o-; ue̅dh(H)- (aor.) (AE 421)
PIE *uedh-(H-) {1} ‘to push, strike, beat’ (Pok. 1115)
Skt. vádhati ‘to strike, destroy’
Notes: {1} Can also be connected with the root ueǵh- ‘to pull; drive’: ueǵh-o-, cf. Skt. váhati.

vjell [verb] (tg) ‘to vomit, spew’
Present: vjell; Aorist: volla; Part.: vjellë
PAlb. *uel- < QIE *uelH-o-; ue̅l- (aor.)
Alb. zhdërvjell [verb] (tg) {1} ‘to unravel, untangle’; (i) zvjellët [adj] (tg) {2} ‘agile, nimble, supple’ (AE 422)
PIE *uelH- ‘to turn, twist’ (Pok. 1140)
Skt. válati ‘to turn (round), twist’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with zh-dër-. {2} Alb. formation with z- and -(ë)t(ë).

vjel [verb] (tg) ‘to pick (up), gather, pluck’
Present: vjel; Aorist: vola; Part.: vjelë
PAlb. *uell- < QIE *uels-o-; ue̅ls- (aor.) (AE 423)
PIE *uel-(s-) ‘to tear, seize upon’ _?_ (Pok. 1145)
Lat. vello̅ ‘to pluck, tug’

vjerr {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to hang (up)’
Present: vjerr; Aorist: vora; Part.: vjerrë
PAlb. *(a)uer- < QIE *h2uer-o-; h2ue̅r- (aor.) (AE 423)
PIE *h2uer- ‘to bind, hang (up)’ (Pok. 1150)
Gr. ἀείρω ‘to heave, hoist up’
Notes: {1} With ‘hardening’ of the auslaut.

var [verb] (tg) ‘to hang (up)’
Present: var; Aorist: vara; Part.: varur / varë, varun
PAlb. *(a)uarei- < QIE *h2uor-eio/e-
Alb. varg [m] (tg) ‘row, range, file, chain’ (AE 423)
PIE *h2uer- ‘to bind, hang (up)’ (Pok. 1150)

zvjerdh {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to wean (away from)’
Present: zvjerdh; Aorist: zvordha; Part.: zvjerdhë (tg), zvjerdhur / zvjerdhun
PAlb. * ̊uerδ- < QIE *uerǵh-o-; ue̅rǵh- (aor.) (AE 432)
PIE *uer-ǵh- ‘to constrain, twist’ (Pok. 1154)
Lith. ver̃žti ‘to constrain, lace’; MHG erwergen ‘to scrag, strangle’
Notes: {1} With the privative prefix z-.

ngul {1} [verb] (tg) ‘to prick, drive in, spit’
Present: ngul; Aorist: ngula; Part.: ngulë (tg), ngulur (t)
PAlb. * ̊gull- < QIE *gwl̥H-(e)i-
Alb. gul [adj] (t) ‘hornless’ (AE 187)
PIE *gwelH- ‘to prick’ (Pok. 470)
Lith. gélti ‘to prick’; gìlti ‘to get pained, ache’
Notes: {1} Alb. formation with the prefix (a)n-.

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