Real-Time Architectures (2IN60) autumn 2009 (for Automotive Technology)


Last update: May 10th, 2009.






The examinations (including draft answers) of (previous years of) 2IN20 (!):

Examinations (including draft answers) of 2IN25 (!):


Examinations (including draft answers) of 2IN60:



Note: 2IN20 is a 4 ECTS credits BaMa predecessor of 2IN25. 2IN25 is a 5 ECTS credits BaMa course within TU/e, WIN.




This course is organized around the issue of real-time requirements and their impact on the hardware-software architecture of a system. This includes:

·         examples of applications with real-time requirements;

·         the techniques used to enforce real-time properties in a verifiable manner (e.g., real-time scheduling, Quality of Service management);

·         examples of particular problems and solutions.

The considered system domain will the hardware software interface of most notably, (networked) embedded systems and (multi)processing architectures. Examples are drawn from the automotive domain, amongst others.

This year, there are 8 weeks of regular lectures. Some parts of the lectures will be used for small exercises which will be given as homework assignments. The course is completed by passing the final examination.

On this site the current status of the course will be maintained in terms of the contents and expected reading. Presented slides will only be available from StudyWeb.

Course program (see last year’s course for a preliminary course program)

Quartile 1 (August 31th – October 23rd):

Week 1 (01-09): RTA.A1-Overview, RTA.A1-Introduction;
           (04-09): No lectures (Recap for 2IN60)

Week 2 (08-09): RTA.A1-Introduction (cnt’d), RTA.B3-Specification Concepts, RTA.B3-Reference Model
           (11-09): No lectures (Recap for 2IN60)

Week 3 (15-09): RTA.B3-Reference Model (cnt’d), RTA.D0-Water-Vessel, RTA.B4-Policies-1 (read chapter 1 & 2)
           (18-09): Exercises-1

Week 4 (22-09): RTA.B4-Policies-1 (cnt’d), RTA.B5-Analysis-1, RTA.B5-Analysis-2
           (25-09): Exercises-2

Week 5 (29-09): RTA.B5-Analysis-2 (cnt’d), RTA.B5-Analysis-6
           (02-10): guest lectures by Dr. D. Isovic from the Mälardalen University of Västerås, Sweden.

Week 6 (06-10): RTA.B5-Analysis-6 (cnt’d), RTA.B4-Policies-2
           (09-10): Exercises-3, Exercises-5

Week 7 (13-10): RTA.B4-Policies-3
           (16-10): No lectures (study information days)

Week 8 (20-10): Exercises-6, Exercises-8
           (23-10): Additional exercise

Week 9 (27-10): No lectures (examination week)!
           (30-10): No lectures (examination week)!

Week 10 (03-11): No lectures (examination week)!
             (06-11): No lectures (examination week)!

RTA Reading guide: reading guide of last year’s course.

RTA binder: All slides and exercises are available via StudyWeb.

Time & Location:

Quartine \ Day

Tuesday: 10.45 – 12.30

Friday: 10.45 – 12.30

1 & 2



Examination: There will be a final exam on Wednesday, November 4th, 9.00-12.00 with a reprise on Friday, January 22nd, 9.00-12.00. You are not allowed to take any information with you to the examination!

Visualization tools

·         Realtime


R.J.Bril (main lecturer)

          HG 5.09, tel.: 5412


Guest lecturers:

  • Dr. D. Isovic, Mälardalen University of Västerås (S).


Book: G.C. Buttazzo, “Hard real-time computing systems, predictable scheduling – algorithms and applications”, Springer, 2005, ISBN 0-387-23137-4 (2nd edition).

Related slides:;


Identified errors 2008/2009: Errata.

Expected reading:

[1]  Risk Forum: What really happened on Mars Rover Pathfinder, December 1997.

[2]  R.J. Bril, E.F.M. Steffens, and W.F.J. Verhaegh, Best-case response times and jitter analysis of real-time tasks, Journal of Scheduling, 7(2): 133-147, 2004.

[3]  D. Polock and D. Zoebel,Conformance testing of priority inheritance protocols, In: Proc. 7th IEEE International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), pp. 404-408, December 2000.

Further reading:

[4]  G.C. Buttazzo, Rate Monotonic vs. EDF: Judgment Day, Real-Time Systems, 29(1): 5 – 26, 2005.

[5]  J. Goossens and R. Devillers, The non-optimality of the monotonic priority assignments for hard real-time offset free systems, Real-Time Systems, 13(2): 107-126, September 1997.

[6]  M.H. Klein, T. Ralya, B. Pollak, R. Obenza, and M. González Harbour, A Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers (KAP), 1993.

[7]  J.W.S. Liu, Real-Time Systems, Prentice Hall, 2000.

[8]  R. Obenza, Guaranteeing real-time performance using RMA, Embedded Systems Programming, pp. 26-40, 1994.

[9]  D. Zoebel and P. Polock and A. van Arkel, Testing for the Conformance of Real-time Protocols Implemented by Operating Systems, Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 133, pp. 315- 332, May 2005.